Title March, 2014

Title for blog Marc 2014 edition

Education and the significance of life

By Agha Jahanzaib Baloch

When one travels around the world, one notices to what an extraordinary degree human nature is the same. This is1236839_571287059633378_691391517_n especially true in colleges in universities. We are turning out, as if through a mould, a type of human being whose chief interest is to find security, to become somebody important, or to have a good time with as little thought as possible. Conventional education makes independent thinking from the extremely difficult. Conformity leads to mediocrity to be different from the group or to resist environment is not easy and is often risky as long as we worship success. The urge to be successful, which is the pursuit of reward whether in the material or in the so called spiritual sphere, the search for inward or outward security, the desire for comfort this whole process smothers discontent, puts an end to spontaneity and breeds fear; and fear blocks the intelligent understanding of life, with increasing age, dullness of mind and heart sets in. in seeking comfort, we generally find a quiet corner in life where there is a minimum of conflict, and then we are afraid to step out of that seclusion. This fear of life, this fear of struggle and of new experience, kills in us the spirit of adventure; our whole upbringing and education have made us afraid to be different from our neighbor, afraid to think contrary to the established pattern of society, falsely respectful of authority and tradition. Fortunately, there are a few who are in earnest, who are willing to examine our human problems without the prejudices of the right or of the left; but in the vast majority of us, there is no real spirit of discontent, of revolt. When we yield incomprehensively to environment, any spirit of revolt that we may have had dies down, and our responsibilities soon put an end to it.

 Revolt is of two kinds: there is violent revolt, which is mere reaction, without understanding, against the existing order; and there is the deep psychological revolt of intelligence. There are many who revolt against the established orthodoxies only to fail into new orthodoxies, further illusions and concealed self-indulgences. What generally happens is that we break away from one group or set of ideals and join another group; take up other ideals, thus creating a new pattern of thought against which we will again have to revolt. Revolt only breeds opposition, and reforms needs further reform.

 But there is an intelligent revolt which is not reaction, and which is not reaction, and which comes with self-knowledge through the awareness of one’s own thought and feeling. It is only when we face experience as it comes and do not avoid disturbance that we keep intelligence highly awakened; and intelligence highly awakened in intuition, which is the only true guide in life. Now, what is the significance of life? What are we living and struggling for? If we are being educated merely to achieve distinction, to get a better job, to be more efficient, to have wider domination over other, then our lives will be shallow and empty. If we are being educated only to be scientists, to be scholars wedded to books, or specialist addicted to knowledge, then we shall be contributing to the destruction and misery of the world. Though there is a higher and wider significance to life, of what value is our education if we never discover it? We may be highly educated, but if we are without deep integration of thought and feeling, our lives are incomplete, contradictory and torn with many fears; and as long as education does not   cultivate an integrated outlook on life, it has very little significance. In our present civilization we have divided life into so many departments that education has very little meaning, except in learning a particular technique or profession. Instead of awakening the integrated intelligence of the individual, education is encouraging him to conform to pattern and so is hindering his comprehension of himself as a total process. To attempt to solve the many problems of existence at their respective levels, separated as they are into various categories, indicates an utter later of comprehension. The individual is made up of different entities, but to emphasize the difference and to courage the development of development of a definite type leads to many complexities and contradictions. Education should bring about the integration of these separate entities for without integration, life becomes a series of conflicts and sorrows. Of what value is knowledge if we continue in our confusion? What significance has technical and industrial capacity if we use it to destroy one another? What is the point of our existence if it leads to violence and utter misery? Though we have money or are capable of earning it, though we have our pleasure and our organized religions, we are in endless conflict. We must distinguish between the personal and the individual. The personal is the accident; and by the accidental I mean the circumstances of birth, the environment in which we happen to have been brought up, with its nationalism, superstitions, class distinctions and prejudices. The personal or accidental is but momentary, though that moment may last a lifetime; and as the present system of education is based on the personal, the accidental, the momentary, it leads to perversion of thought and the inculcation of self- defensive fears.

 All of us have been trained by education and environment to seek personal gain and security, and to fight for ourselves. Though we cover it over with pleasant phrase, we have been educated for various professions with a system which is based on exploitation and acquisitive fear. Such training must inevitably bring confusion and misery to us and to the world, for it creates in each individual those psychological barriers which separates and hold him apart from others. Education is not merely a matter or training the mind. Training makes too efficiency, but it does not bring about completeness. A mind that has merely been trained is the continuation of the past, and such a mind can never discover the new. That is why, to find out what is right education, we will have to inquire into the whole significance of living. To most of us, the meaning of life as a whole is not of primary importance, and our education emphasizes secondary values, merely making us proficient in some branch of knowledge. Though knowledge and efficiency are necessary, to lay chief emphasis on them only leads to conflict and confusion. There is an efficiency inspired by love which goes far beyond and is much greater than the efficiency of ambition; and without love, which brings an integrated understanding of life, efficiency breeds ruthlessness. Is this not what is actually taking place all over the world? Our present education is geared to industrialization and war, its principal aim is being to develop efficiency; and we are caught in this machine of ruthless competition and mutual destruction. If education leads to war, if it teaches us to destroy or be destroyed, has it not utterly failed?  To bring about right education, we must obviously understand the meaning of life as a whole, and for that we have to be able to think, not consistently, but directly and truly.

 A consistent thinker is a thoughtless person, because he conforms to a pattern; he repeats phrases and thinks in a groove. We cannot understand abstractly or theoretically. To understand life is to understand ourselves, and that is both the beginning and the end of education. Education is not merely acquiring knowledge, gathering and correlating facts; it is to see the significance of life as a whole. But the whole cannot be approached through the part which is what governments, organized religions and authoritarian parties are attempting to do. The function of education is to create human being who is integrated and therefore intelligent. We may take degree and be mechanically efficient without being intelligent. Intelligence is not mere information; it is not derived from books, or does it consists of clever self- defensive responses and aggressive assertions. One who has not studied may be more intelligent than the learned. We have made examinations and degrees the criterion of intelligence and have developed cunnings minds that avoid vital human issues. Intelligence is the capacity to perceive the essential, that what is; and to awaken this capacity, in oneself and in others, is education.

 Education should help us to discover lasting values so that we do not merely cling to formulas or repeat slogans; it should help us to break down our national and social barriers, instead of emphasizing them, for they breed antagonism between and man. Unfortunately, the present system of education is making us subservient, mechanical and deeply thoughtless; though it awakens us intellectually, inwardly it leaves us incomplete, stultified and uncreative. Without an integrated understanding of life, our individual and collective problems will only deepen and extend. The purpose of education is not only to produce mere scholars, technicians and job hunters, but integrated men and women who are free of fear; for only between such human beings can there be enduring peace. It is in the understanding of ourselves that fear comes to an end. If the individual is to grapple with life from moment to moment, if he is to face its intricacies, its miseries and sudden demands, he must be infinitely supple and therefore, free of theories and particular patterns of thought. Education should not encourage the individual to conform to society or to be negatively harmonious with it, but help him to discover the true values which come with unbiased investigation and self-awareness. When there is no self-knowledge, self-expression becomes self-assertion, with all its aggressive and ambitious conflicts. Education should awaken the capacity to be self-ware and not merely indulge in gratifying self-expression.

 What is good of learning if in the process of living we are destroying ourselves? As we are having a series of devastating wars, one right after another, there is obviously something radically wrong with the way we bring up our children. I think most of us are aware of this, but we do not know how to deal with it.

 System, weather education or political, are not changed mysteriously; they are transformed when there is a fundamental change in ourselves. The individual is of first importance, not system; and as long as the individual does not understand the total process of himself, no system, whether of the left or of the right, can bring order and peace to the world.

An exclusive Interview with Mohd Azeem Kakar (an educationalist) about “Education and youth”

Interviewed By Masood Gul Khetran

Mohd Azeem Kakar did intermediate from Residential College Loralai. He made his graduate from P1050411Crescent College Lahore, and then he got degree of master in political science from Punjab University. He qualifies for federal positions through federal service commission, and recreationally worked at daily “Mashriq Quetta”. Meantime, he wrote more than 170 article pieces which have published in local papers. Mr Azeem Kaker is author of two books; one is about international relations with the title “Ayar Parwar”, whilst second book’s substances are about incidents and personalities “Wakiyat aur Shakhsiyat”, which is collection of his work published in newspapers. He also publishes another booklet contains 600 quotes with title “Popular quotes” Mr. Kaker’s this knowledgeable work is available in market, too.

Mr Azeem Kakar resigns the jobs respectively with ambitious to run an educational institute in Balochistan and concrete a way for Balochistan’s youth to dive in ocean of knowledge and occupy a space in the competitive world.

Mr Azeem Kakar suggests to youth that they earn an identity for themselves instead of being reliant on family dynasty. He also reproves the student’s involvement in politics, and sees fake documentation about education statics in country.  The interview of Mr Kakar is presented here for reader of Bolan Voice.

(Blv stands for Bolan Voice and MAK for Mohd Azeem Kakar)

Blv: What are the aims behind erection of Illmia Institute and when this initiative was taken?

MAK: I am glad to   listen this question and indeed I would like to throw light on this point. Primarily one need to be focused, one need to centralize their energies is an “aim”. Illimia institute was established in Feb, 2009. I with my companions Qaisar Khan from DMG group and Asad Nasir started a program in 2009 with an intention to have quality education in Balochistan. And most importantly the people of Balochistan were not having any access to preparation of competitive exams. In that connection, we have taken a decision. We on our best capability and capacity to facilitate the people of Balochistan in education sector, especially prepare the students for competitive exams. I am glad to say that more than 70 students of Illmia have passed competitive exams and got appointed on various positions.

Blv: Define the word “education”, its philosophy and elaborate its significance in present age?

MAK: Certainly, we have different discussion and on different forums regarding the importance and worth of education in society of Balochistan. I always tried to be conservative regarding spread of education, regarding true promotion of education and in that connection I would like to date the very first attempt in this connection we made initiative that was opening of Illimia institute. And in long run, we too have two different plans to open schools for different community’s levels. But firstly and importantly, I must indicate the importance of education and I must come-up with this idea. It is well said by one of American president Benjamin Franklin, “The education begins with life”. Where your life starts definitely education also starts, so the grooming of mind and the overall attitude and behavior of a citizen starts. Similarly, I have reference of Nelson Mandela, “Education is the chief defense of nations”. You cannot defend your state properly until/unless you are not fully equipped, you have rather more resources regarding education. So, I personally consider it as the reference of Nelson Mandela and opinion of Napoleon Bonaparte, “Education is third eye of human”. I do have the same face; I believe that without spread of education including literacy rate we will be able to come-up to work.

Blv: Are you contented with present authorities of education department, and do you see prevailing educational system in Balochistan up-to-dated?

MAK: Look Masood Gul! The basic things are philosophy and ideology, and the renewed philosopher Plato said, “20 to 30 years to be given for development of skills in any profession”, because that is mandatory and we believe in same school of thoughts. Unfortunately, in Balochistan and Pakistan we have been given fake statics about education. The defect is this, in Balochistan; there are two methodology of education with sharp contrasts, in Madrassas students are taught religious notions, meanwhile in schools worldly subjects are taught. If we come towards the mandarin education and secular education, thence we see a wide gap between both mods of edifications. And question rises that how to fill this gape, the feudal-lords and tribal elements don’t allow us to develop; these are hampered in the way of spreading education, technical education and advancement in life. Presently, our society is facing crises, the only alternative of this is quality education which succors to bring fair representatives on policy making floors and these representatives also are to be accountable before the people.

Blv: To whom you declare responsible for ruin of educational sector in Balochistan?

MAK: We already have discussed that feudal lords and tribal culture is deteriorating to education in Balochistan, they don’t allow us for education because they think that education is great threat for their monopoly; resultantly, they are impeding in the way of spread of education in the province.

In Balochistan, education is based on two tires; on one side students who are being educated at Madrasas and on another side worldly knowledge medium institute (schools) are being run. Furthermore, the gap between these two distinguished medium educated people is widening in practical life with passage of time.

On a one side the people observe each and everything in the perspective of Quran and Hadiths, meanwhile on the other side a folk of people measure the things scientifically and want to deal the life matter logically. In this way, a rift has taken place between these two thoughts. Apart from these the people who are working professionally, they must equip primarily themselves. Secondly, they must have methodology; they understand psychology how to deliver the message to the memory level 1, level 2, of recipient. These are the technical skills, which are rare among the practitioners of education field. Here I have points which I want to highlight that in Balochistan, fake documents are being presented for instance recently it is shown in UNDP survey report that given facilities to children are not proper. If government cannot facilitate, so it is quite shocked position. The survey reports should be accurate and the in Pakistan the rate of literacy must be higher than 30 or 35%, and reflecting to our statics it is 44% but sometimes we take it to 60%, excessively.

Blv: What is current literacy is rate in Balochistan and is government solely responsible for this?

MAK: A realistic approach must be adopted and misconception ought to be dispelled; hence, it is true that state is not responsible for all in aspects. I might not fulfill my responsibilities smoothly, so I am also responsible for degradation of education. The major responsibility comes on those, who are supposed to have exceptional talent, because they are policy-makers. Regrettably, the policy-makers don’t have idea about education’s professionalism and specialization. The education minister and secretary education are to be asked for quality education. I personally know that at Balochistan University which is hub of education field in entire province, where students are failed merely for funds generation, so from this the inclusive performance of government can be guessed, easily. A University, which is affiliated with Higher Education Commission (HEC) condition is this, the all educational institutes and government high level officials are connected with this but they are dormant, so what should we talk about other institutes. They demand for high salaries, they demand rise in percentage, they demand new privileges and incentives but how much they are contributing? Such substances are causing the degradation of education quality in Balochistan. And different sphere of people are responsible for this as equal the government.

Blv: Computer education is utmost need of time because each department is reliant on this new invention, how do you see this modern education?

MAK: Every epoch has its requirements, if you have knowledge about history of Sub-continent, Europe and America that entire state was dependent on agriculture sector. In eighteenth century, an industrial revolution materialized and in order to strengthen the economic muscle, that age of sage said we have to launch industry. You can exist if you are exceled properly in computer literacy, science and technology, and this is the phenomena of 21 century. This is era of modern sciences and technical education. The Europe got a foremost status in world due to innovative policy of education and scientific researches. The modernization and contemporary medium with mechanism are crucial for quality education. On this juncture, technical education and gigantically knowledge of computer are requisition of objective circumstances; therefore, innovative tools of education are to be promoted. In Pervez Musharaf time, this field was worked, jobs and opportunities were created. We discourage Musharraf regime’s malevolent deeds; I feel the measurement is necessary of righteous conducts.

Blv: Is the computer literacy being compulsory for competitive exams?

MAK: It was a time that competitive exams participants strength was low, during 2005 and 2006 the trend wasn’t high and I have rather intensity saying that the CSS candidate’s number was 4000, and today the lapse of five to six years the aspirant number have increased enough and last year the applied students number was higher than mentioned figure which implies the students inclination toward this field. During the period of five to six years students shall be recommended for websites and they are emphasized go to search engines for reliable informative websites and get connected with information technology by computer. It is outspoken that today you cannot compete by old books, thus must compete with new ideas and creativity. The ideas, creativity and innovation how can be developed that you do change your medium, means use the computer and internet. The candidates of competitive exams must facilitate themselves with recommended modern tools.

Blv: How do you feel with student’s involvement in politics?

MAK: The time has gone that a single earns and hundreds eat. We have entered in such age that there is atmosphere of competiveness, and in this environment you must not get students to up-hold flag in their hands, and you cannot make them to read political parties’ manifesto or we are not sitting here to teach the students about freedom movements or its history, likewise political games. Whoever is affiliated with parties or any fraction is collaborating means that is operating tool of political parties and such activities are deleterious for student’s career. Parties are raising various slogans, like religion and nationalism for the sake of interest’s attainment. In Pakistan, some people who have their political games and they raise religious passions at schools, they are trying to cash their benefits and for that reason they have carved dissimilar slogans with sentiments of nationalism and religion. Other pockets also exist, they talk in different ways from discussed groups and they have forth the secular approach but objective is to get their aims. Now we have to get the student realized that they must not be drove in to the politics on unfitting time. Here it is trend that you cannot get room in hostel at university unless you don’t have affiliation with any student organization. Such policies of parties are detrimental for student’s studies and I never support this type of acts.

Blv: Do you have any sketch that be brought a revolution in education sector of Balochistan?

MAK: Platonic theory about education is to be implemented in Balochi-stan, the discussed articulates, the educationalist must be a philosopher to understand the psychology of people and sagaciously make them understand. Mean the knowledgeable, philosophical and sagacious people run the education section of society and build the nation.

The Balochistan’s youth earn high name in educational revolution, and constitution’s articles 62, 63 entails that government authorities must be non-profligate and sagacious, and they must not be corrupt including scandal free, and they must be far-sighted. Only these characterized people can convert the livings into human or civilized people. Regrettably, the people who have been dropped in all departments in the life gets teacher; eventually the question rises that how these failed people can bring a revolution in field of education. It is mandatory that able and brilliant people be brought in education sector, then change will occur.

Blv: How your institute (Illimia) can play a role to bring some changes in the sector of education in urban and rural areas of Balochistan?

MAK: Illmia is non-profiting organization. We never have had any handsome amount from Illmia and in this institute’s brochure it is inscribed that it will introduce programs for poor students. Our preparation programs are very low-cost as compared with other institutes of Quetta and other cities. In Balochistan, it is prevailing system, “One earns and many eat” in such conditions paying of big amount in regard of institute fee is impossible, because how a student can subsist the entire month after payment of a heavy fee. Therefore, education must not be for earning profit and this section of life should be non-profitable. The organizer of an institute must have sentiments, “I will run the organization whether I am in deficit”. It is out-spoken that organizations run only by sprit. If a person opens an institute for earning profit, so certainly its age will be very short and learner of that don’t regard the staff of organization. But ours institute students are identification of this and it is not require of mine to introduce it.

Blv: Would you have scrupulous massage to youth by medium of Bolan Voice?

MAK: Tolstoy would say that meaning of life is to serve humanity, and this can be in many ways; it is not necessary that a person open an educational institute or devote itself in any hospital, a shopkeeper can serve, a trader can serve, restaurant owner also can serve, primarily if he/she has idea of human values and humanism or has philanthropic approach, can serve. I have a reference of Tolstoy, “Every member of society wants to change the world, but don’t change itself”. Mr. Ghandi would say that be the changed you wish to see. In the world, it should be ambitioned that what be in life, and what its ambitions that what he/she be in life, and doesn’t know mean of life, so it is ironical that something based on slacken material. Set your objective, what is mean of life and what you want to be? If goal is not set, so those youth are not worth, even no need to be discussed. This is responsibility of state to manage its resources, manpower including youth’s dynamic that benefit the entire nation.

Youth make themselves productive; the aptitudes are to their identification. It is proverb, “Do good and you will have no need of your ancestors”. We the people of Balochistan generally feel pride that I am the son of the tribal elite, MPA, MNA, the son of secretary and so on are common introductory. Youth must have ambition and they struggle for their goal with great vision.

Sindhu Desh; another front against state

By Shehzad Baloch

In Balochistan, the separatist movement rooted deep and it also is recognized by several international organizations,JSQM-stance-480x238 forums, parties and personalities. The Baloch movement thrived enough and got height to generate resources for its survival without depending on someone or being under-handed of any state or international lobby.

Baloch movement has constituted it’s all departments, like media (in limited sphere), human rights organization, and international delegations to communicate with world. Albeit, now the mentioned movement is inaccessible for state to wipe it out, but state and its favored thinkers are seeking any adjustment with this edified movement, but this process is not seems possible yet due to rigid policy or freedom stance of the workers and leaders of said movement. Baloch Movement is a serious threat for state but state authorities couldn’t learn a lesson from this and they are practicing or adopted same policy of persecutions in next province, the Sindh, where the voice of separation is echoing and can be heard to world, clearly. In shape of Sindhu Desh movement another front against state have been opened as similar to Baloch Movement.

For strangulating the separatist movement of Sindhis, the state institute’s officials on 21st March, 2014, targeted the leader of Jeaye Sindh Qumi Mahz (JSQM) and his comrade in the vicinity of Naushero Feroz a town of Sindh. The martyred leaders of Sindhi party were on the way that the vehicles of state institutes intervened and opened indiscriminate fire on them. The Sindhi political worker’s vehicle afterward was set-fire by assailants. Masood Qureshi and Salman Wadho were critically injured, as result; Mr Wadho succumbed to wounds on the spot, while Mr Qureshi was shifted to hospital where he breathe his last.

Before the demise, Mr Masood Quersishi spoke to his comrades and video recording of his last words is loaded in social media, like Facebook and on networks. In video, it is seen, he is lying on a stretcher in vexed position, and he was narrating the incident of his targeting, perpetrated by state security personal. He said, “They were travelling in the suburb of Sanghar and on Sangher- bypass a vehicle of agency over took their motor car, another one was chasing, simultaneously they opened fire on them with Kalashankoves and G-3 guns. Consequently, they lost control on motor car and it plunged into the low ground, beside the road. The agency-men fired upon fuel tank of vehicle which resulted it ablaze. While seeing the local people, the agency men fled, and citizen rushed to scene, ensuing the incident, people taken us out from burring vehicle and they shifted to hospital. We want freedom of Sindh, and a separate state “Sindhu Desh”. Our sacrifices of lives are not unexpected or accidental. We were ready for these consequences, and will be continuing the series of sacrifice till liberation of our land.” Mr Masood Quereshi sworn before succumb.

Some months before the same nationalist party ‘JSQM’ leader Mr Basheer Quershi was also murdered in same style, he was elder brother of recently slain Mr Masood Quershi.

The martyrdom incident of Sindhi leader sparked violent protest through-out Sindh and in Karachi’s Sindhi and Baloch dominating parts. The furious activists attacked government installations, like banks and government premises and vandalized ATM centers with other state’s valuables. They disturbed traffic on national highways which links with Punjab, Khyber Pakhtoon Khuwa and Balochistan. The baton-wielded protestor set-fire to trawlers, trucks and other heavy vehicles bounded to Punjab.

The JSQM leaders claimed that state agencies committed murder of their leader to halt their Freedom Really, which was scheduled to conduct on 23rd of March, 2014, the same day is reserved as “Pakistan day”.

Ensuing the martyrdom of Sindhi leaders theirs party ‘JSQM’ managed a massive really in Karachi on 23rd March, 2014. According to media reports the really was a historic due to its size and fervent participation of Sindhi peoples. The protestors were chanting slogans “Sindh want freedom”, (Sindh Ghury thee Azadi). The protesting organizations and Sindhi Nationalist leaders claimed that more than 0.2 million people had took part in grand public gathering. Mr Sunan Qureshi led the march and blamed that security and intelligence agencies killed his uncle, and he declared the deceased, “Martyrs of Freedom March”. The participants of march sung their National Anthem, too. The protesters offered the funeral prayer of their physically served leaders on the occasion.

Many other Sindhi nationalist parties’ leaders participated in the Freedom March and funeral prayer of JQSM martyred leaders. The representatives of Sindh United party (SUP), Sindh National party (STPP), Jeay Sindh Mahaz (JSM), Singh Traqui Passand party (STPP) participated in the JSQM’S march. The Pakistan pro-federation parties like Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) and MQM didn’t attend the mentioned march.

From gathered crowd the chairman of JSQM spoke and said that they are follower of GM syed and demand for a separate Sindhu Desh. He blamed that immigrants from various parts are being populated on their land, which must be stopped, even non-local to be expelled from Sindh and the MQM will not be allowed for division of Sindh. The nationalist party leader warned.

The situations and slogans of protestors indicate that the killing of Sindhi leaders and workers will ferment to the province of Sindh. The massive rally and violent protest followed by the murder of Masood Qureshi and Salman Wadhs is indicating the inception of another front against the state as similar the Baloch. The last words of Mr  Masood Qureshi implies to a battle in Sindh, because state’s structure is dwindling and the dilapidated political system cannot  manipulate the people be in same conditions. The PPP and MQM also have despaired the Sindh’s masses the worst. These parties are partnered with establishment and totally got failed to serve common people, except a layer or some families who are living abroad or they have properties in European states. Sindh’s people should identify the mentioned parliamentarian parties that have enslaved them equally to establishment.

Gender in equality: Women in perspective

By agha Jahanzaib Baloch

Every society regards women in its own way, yet the status of women across the globe has long been a matter ofIWD_2013 poster discussion in every section and at varied levels. While a majority of women across the globe faces social limitations and inequality in one way or the other, women in the developed world enjoy relatively better living standards and social privileges than their counterparts in developing or underdeveloped countries.

South Asia offers a poignant case study on gender-related issues. The region ranks among the least developed on human development index, and hence a number of challenges are posed to its people, particularly women. Patriarchy forms the basis of social setup in South Asia. Although there are variations in customs and value system with certain exceptions in a few countries in the region, gender discrimination remains common in South Asian societies.

It is no secret that traditionally women are considered subordinated and subservient to men and, therefore, are treated as unequal and this attitude and mindset leaves an indelible mark on the life of both rural and urban women. On the other hand, women’s role in politics and other sectors has been remarkable. Such as Banuk Karima Baloch, Banuk Farzana, Hooran Baloch and others are playing an exceptional role in ongoing Baloch Movement.  Since the independence movement in which women were instrumental in carrying forward the movement and formed an indispensible part of political awakening in the region, South Asian women have been taking the lead in a number of fields including sports, literature, aeronautics, academia, filmmaking, human rights activism etc. Except for a few countries, women reached the highest political positions in many countries in South Asia. Regrettably, a greater section of the female population is still underprivileged and facing sharp inequalities.

Another important dimension of women’s participation in their respective societies is their role as combatants. In Nepal, Sri Lanka and India, in particular, women played an instrumental role in insurgencies and civil wars. There were a number of reasons that compelled women to take up arms in violent struggles against their governments. The Baloch women vehemently fought and embraced martyrdom in ongoing insurgency as Banuk (sister) Aqleena got martyred against the injustices. In some cases women were assaulted, in others they lost their families. Yet in other cases they were ideologically inclined towards the agenda of the armed struggle(s).

The most important dimension of this issue is the status of rural women. Rural women are subjected to male dominancy; feudal mindset, unlawful customs and socio-cultural segregation are deemed a symbol of pride. In many cases religion has been disproportionately used to exploit women. Central to this issue is the fact that several basic rights are considered taboos for women. Precisely, there are two extremes that women in South Asia experience, particularly in Pakistan and India. In urban areas, women have access to quality education and they enjoy socio-economic empowerment in relative terms, whereas in rural areas with a few exceptions, women are faced with subjugation and socio-economic suppression. Even though they, along with men, constitute a major part of the workforce in the field and other household industries in rural areas, they are not given the dignity and true respect, they deserve as equal human beings. A number of non-governmental organizations for human rights and women’s rights being run in the region seek to resolve women’s problems, especially in rural areas.

While harassment, domestic violence, women’s trafficking and crimes against women are common in many other societies, South Asia — especially Pakistan and India — present a distressing situation. Forced marriages, female infanticide, honor killings and other custom-related practices against women are common in Pakistan and India. Especially in India the invention of ultra-sound has aggravated the crime abortion after confirming the femininity of female. Although the constitutions of almost all South Asian countries stipulate equal rights to citizens and reject gender-based discrimination, the societies suffer with gender discrimination to the core. The UNDP Human Development Re port 2011 ranked Pakistan 115, out of the 146 countries in Gender Inequality Index (GII), whereas India was ranked 129 and Bangladesh 112.

With regard to political empowerment of women in the region, especially Pakistan and India, the statistics are comparatively better. In India, women constitute 48.6 percent of the rural population, whereas they constitute 48.1 percent of the urban population. In Pakistan, women constitute 48.3 of the rural population and 47.2 of the urban population. In South Asia, women are relatively under-represented in parliaments in their respective countries. In some countries the last decade witnessed an increasing trend in the total number of seats reserved for women in parliaments. However, some countries experienced a declining trend as well.

The Indian Constitution provides women with eight per cent participation, in Sri Lanka there is 4.4 percent participation of women in parliament. In Bangladesh and Bhutan, the total number of seats reserved for women in parliament is just 2 percent. In Nepal, the allocated number of seats is 5.8 percent and in Maldives it is 6.3 percent. Yet, like in the United States, women cannot be elected as president in Maldives. In Afghanistan, of the 249 seats in the Lower House of the National Assembly 64 are reserved for women now. In Pakistan, 17 per cent seats are reserved for women. (The National Assembly in Pakistan has 342 seats, of which 272 are directly elected and 60 seats are reserved for women, and 10 seats are reserved for religious minorities.  The Balochistan assembly has 65 seats, and 11 seats are reserved for women, while three seats reserved for minorities. In Balochistan a prominent organization BSO Azad has tremendously encouraged women participation in particle life, such as the chair-person of BSO-Azad (Banuk) Karima Baloch is setup in example by devoting her life for the organization as Farzana Majeed along with Baloch women’s participated in the historic long march from Quetta to Islamabad and voiced up for missing persons. BSO Azad is committed to edify the Baloch women and its performance is apparent in front of the world.

It should be noted that empowerment of women, as we know the phenomenon, is not a goal. In fact, it is an enduring process that paves the way for socio-economic growth and tolerant and the progressive socio-cultural environment. It may then also contribute towards greater political stability and integrity in a state. A careful analysis states the fact that economic and political empowerment of women in South Asia, particularly Pakistan and India, remains elusive due to lack of appropriate measures and policies for reducing gender inequalities. Governments are required to promote a women-friendly mindset and lessen the influence of patriarchal setup in societies. A section of independent, educated and privileged female urban population only reflects a change that the urban strata in South Asian societies is experiencing, however it does not represent the majority of women in South Asia.

21th March death anniversary of Martyred Hameed Shaheen Baloch

By Shehzad Baloch 

It was 20th March, 2011, when the news about abduction of comrade Hameed Shaheen Baloch was released by his familycomrade sources. He was travelling to Karachi by a passenger coach, and on next day 21th March, 2011, his dead body was found. Approximately after five days a statement appeared in local newspaper local newspapers about comrade Hameed Shaheen, in that an armed organization claimed the comrade was an activist of theirs group.

Comrade Hameed Shaheen Baloch edified through forum of Baloch Student Organization (BSO) and owned a progressive mindset. His ideology was Marxism and he was a vigorous worker in society and organization about maxist philosophy. He would see all things in scientific manner and would analyses all on rational basis.

Comrade Hameed Shaheen Baloch no doubt was a Baloch nationalist, but he was also a stark humanist. He would believe in pragmatism and he always had harshly criticized on here’s leftist intellectuals for merely drawing room politics and confined till discussions.

Comrade Hameed Shaheen Baloch joined the armed struggle against imperialist and its comprador, his mission’s incepting point was Baloch but his vision was too broad and he had visualized dream to liberate all enslaved humans of this globe. He had dreamed that Balochistan is to be a such land that there a glinting system prevail which confer the eye of justice to Baloch including other humans of this planet.

Comrade Hameed Shaheen Baloch’s the outstanding aptitudes succor him to get a high rank in Baloch Movement. He learnt from his seniors and on scientific, logical and rational grounds taught to common workers the local and international politic, war maneuvers and new invented devices. He was desired to put the movement on the path of democratic principles where gaffes must be mended and for next to be shunned. This process glosses the universe particles to its best essence.

It is enunciated that without loss the aim cannot be gained but it is indispensible that cause of loss must be ascertained and seek the cure of maladies. But here some questions rise in mind that other martyred Baloch’s including Comrade Hameed Shaheen how had fell in the hands of rival and reasons couldn’t provide to martyrs’ family members. The nation and victim families have tolerated grieves of their departed endears but retrieve of this is mandatory for movement in the sake of security to revolutionaries, whom lives are trust of nation and upcoming generations.

The Baloch nation is witnessing an unreasonable debate among fractions of movement which is waste of energies and causing repel to journey of emancipation. Be remembered that Baloch cause has been uplifted by sincere and honest comrade’s sacrifices of lives. The movement needs to establish a section that probe into the matters of martyred Balochs and identify the intriguing elements and theirs mechanism, too. They also establish the institute which keeps check and balance inner affairs of Baloch Movement.

Today objective circumstances are calling for unification among Baloch groups and for systemization that every individual be accountable before the nation. Baloch need leadership by process of social democratic way to communicate with world. Hierarchic system has been farewell by civilized world; therefore, these outdated traditions must be discarded from movement to advance toward the destination of Baloch nation including to real the dream of martyred Hameed Shaheen with other Baloch’s to get an independent and a socialist Balochistan. Where humanity thrives, prosperity, equality, education, love with nature and fragrance environment extract the attention of entire world toward it as being symbolic country and owner of supreme system for mankind. The suppressed people of world take the Baloch Movement and prevailing glinted system of Balochistan as specimen and struggle for human freedom. Comrade Hameed Shaheen Baloch embraced martyrdom with such dreams by disapproving individual and temporal offers by state and craftiness politicians who are wolf in the cover of sheep.

A sign of revolution; Martyred Comrade Hakeem Jan Baloch

By Hameed Baloch

Nobody can give you freedom, nobody can give you equality or Justice if you are a man can take1526387_746107065422760_359486834_n them. (Malcolm X 1925, 1965)

Commonly thousands of human takes birth and demises daily wise, but few of them devote their lives for the betterment and providing soothe to other Human beings, hence they remain everlasting in the history of comrades. As like Che Guevara, Baghat Sing, Mao Stung, Ali Sher Baloch, Hameed Shaheen Baloch, Balach Marri and so on. The Comrade Hakeem Jan Baloch was one of among the people who had gone on struggle to bring dawn of justice for human being and Baloch nation.

During the last days of education comrade Hakeem Jan Baloch joined BSO (United) Muthidah, then after some years it named BSO (Azad). Hakeem Jan was a honest activist of BSO (Azad) comrade had been taking part in study circles where sage leaders were making students understand about national and international affairs. Comrade was always in touch with students to guid them about revolution. In 2000, comrade Hakeem Baloch joined Dr Allah Nazar with his vision. A revolutionary has quality that can’t sit without taking part in revolutionary process. With the passion of revolution comrade joined Baloch freedom movement with Dr Allah Nazar Baloch and other field’s comrades and went strait to mountains. Hakeem Baloch was firms and wanted to serve humanity and Baloch nation with his blood as well as was desirous to include his name in pages of revolutionaries’ history.

After 2007, comrade Hakeem Baloch disappeared from surface and no one was aware about his activities. He was much trusty man because of great political vision and wit he had been counted high in file rank of movement and his organization. Comrade was not only providing training to youth but he was a great teacher for Ideological training, too. In organization, he was known by name of (Haji) among and he had great esteem among the comrade as like the blood relations; brother, friend, father and so on.

When the other friends of his fields heard about severance of Hakeem Jan, then they started weeping and sobbing and said, “Our Hakeem Jan was behaving us like brother, friend, and other blood relations. Hakeem Jan martyrdom left us orphan; really we are feeling ourselves as orphan”.

The comrades of fields say that it was Hakeem Jan quality that he never minded Sangat’s (Comrade) bleak questions. Hakeem Jan had devoted his life for gaining the justice for powerless people and freedom of a socialist Balochistan, he embraced martyrdom on same way to bring the dawn of justice and bright feature for Baloch nation.

He was fighting for 14 years in love of his mother-land with great courage. One of his comrade and cousin Kaleem Jan Baloch also embraced martyrdom in the pursuance of same purpose. He was abducted from Quetta by intelligent agencies in 2011, and after missing for approximately one month his mutilated body was found from same city Quetta. There were 28 sign of bullets on his chest and badly was tortured.

Comrade Hakeem Jan was having some great qualities like, talking few words, slowly speaking, and nice behavior with friends. He had a sweet smile while talking. He was a very sincere with his aim of freedom, and (Sangat) was having great respect among his field’s comrades. Hakeem Jan was desirous that his motherland Balochistan to be independent state with system of justice, equality.

As Yousaf Aziz says “A day preset for death, so why we avoid from martyrdom and give-up our cause?”

Comrade did the same and today the history is witnessed about his struggle. March 17, 2014 was a gloomy day that on this day comrade Hakeem Jan Baloch embraced martyrdom in battle field with counter revolutionaries’ forces in Mekuran. After one week his organization claimed for responsibility that Hakeem Jan Baloch was their associated fighter, we pay him a red solute for his unprecedented struggle, and his name will be written in history with golden words.

By the Martyrdom of Hakeem Jan the Baloch nation and entire humanity have lost a valiant and brilliant comrade. Hakeem Jan was on high level of experiences and Knowledge, he could serve better Baloch nation and humanity but life didn’t support him onward.

I don’t care if I fall, as long as someone else picks up my gun and keeps on shooting. (Che Guevara)

The oppressed womenfolk

By Mehboob Baloch, Kharan

Feminism is fighting a war against enforced marriages, male chauvinism, gender discrimination and gender violence1743458_524677227649484_1845703245_n across the globe.

In relation to our society the misogynistic approach has sealed all the ways of prosperity and welfare for our womenfolk.

Gender discrimination is a highly rated practice among the afore-mentioned evils in our society with no or little attention toward girls’ wellbeing. In contrast males are provided with the ample opportunities of education, entertainment, and social life.

Enforced marriages have touched the peak of immorality and razed the dignity of women. This helped many of the girls becoming psychopath and insane. And many of them committed suicides with no other options left.

When it comes to marriage, a relation which she has to go through for the rest of her life is forcibly overburdened without her desire. Consequences, then become as destructive and unfriendly, as neither the selected husband can achieve what is termed love nor is the wife ready to offer him the desired love and happiness as both are not ideal for each other.

The women in human history have played a cardinal role, in all aspect of life either it is social, political or economic etc. In addition to this, the women in Baloch history have also been seen side by side with Bloch man in all their thick and thin.

The historic march of Farzana Majeed and her eight fellow-girls is apparent to everyone. The rugged mountains of Bolan, the Arabian Sea, the vast plains of Sindh, Panjab and the Potohar plateau witness their footprints through which the brave Banuks (in Balochi girls) walked miraculous 3000 kilo metres undauntedly despite all the deadly raids and threats.

The iconic struggle of Baloch Banuks is a straight message not only to the misogynistic society but also to the entire women community of the globe.

There is acute need to support the women who believe in the women empowerment, self-independence and equality in order to pave the way for their progress.

Fighting a war against male-chauvinism and gender discrimination would probably guarantee a happy and prosperous society.

NP and PKMAP education policy and proscribing of books

By Ahmed Khan

In month of January, 2014, the state forces in Turbat raided Attashad college hostel and arrested some students, andbook their guilt was this they had books about history, poetry and Marxism. It is stunning that resembled to these mentioned books or same versions are available at Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad’s bookstalls and all cities including college and universities, apart from this the literary peoples keep similar   books in their private libraries but they are exempted by this state, only Baloch are not allowed to read or keep Knowledgeable books with them.

In Awaran and other parts of Baloch area some gauche practices were perpetrated by forces, in the ruling time of such government in Balochis-tan which claims for being knowledge friendly and loving education. The ruling parties in province, the National Party and Pashtoon Khuwa Milli Awami Party claim for being progressive and broad vision as against the facts.

National Party (NP) has programs to educate the Baloch Nation and make them sensible in all spheres of life as the parallel politically. The Party leaders merely visited examination centers to appear in media and receive admirations, but reality is this they couldn’t provide any facility to education sector practitioners.

Pashtoon Khuwa Milli Awami Party ostensibly brags for education but denies knowledge which bestows human sense of humanity. The said party for gain of funds and to appease the establishment, leads fake education campaigns for non-factual education which stupefies to mankind due to biased and distorted history, but currently this party is enjoying in government, so doesn’t speak in that way as it would speak in nearer past. This party is also frightened if it voice for righteous they may not be deprived of incentives, ministries and high positions in the provinces. PKMAP has adopted compromising policy about knowledge and education including other departments.

The student group of National Party has motto “Elim-o-Zant”  “knowledge and awareness” but  knowledge providing institutes and education spreading  organizations have been invaded, the process of knowledge suspended but no resist was observed by them, even verbal statement have not been seen by NP and its student organization. Amazingly, what Kind of “Knowledge and awareness” they want and are practicing!

On 6th April, 2014, the forces raided a book vending point, where they had ceased literature including a book “Wahey Watan Hushkein Dar” of Brigadier Majeed, residing in gulf. When Mr Majeed was interviewed by BBC regarding book, so he informed that his book’s contents contain history material but it has no substance that represents anything unreal against state.

The National Party (NP) and Pashtoon Khuwa Milli Awami Party (PKMAP) are ruling in the province and both are progressive and knowledge loving parties, but they are looking helpless and voiceless against seizure of books.

They can demonstrate and can bring minor Children on roads merely show-off for being education loving, meantime they have turned their faces when books and institutes have got closed. The said parties pocket students organizations also turned silent about strangulation of education providing institutes and seizure of books. How these politicians and parties will bring-up their nation as prudent and educated who are frightened from books. Or they are assumed that they use word ‘education’ for making slave people as mentally.

My brother and other Baloch activists’ names have been removed from Supreme Court’s list – Farzana Majeed Baloch

Sister of abducted student leader Zakir Majeed Baloch urged the Supreme Court of Pakistan to find out the reason whyVBMP conference her brother and other Baloch activists’ names have been removed from the Supreme Court’s official list of abducted Baloch persons.

She held a press conference at Karachi Press Club here on Tuesday. The Vice chairman of Voice for Baloch Missing Persons, Qadeer Baloch, and relatives of abducted Kabeer Baloch were also present with her at the Press Club.

She said in the past many years the Pakistani security agencies have abducted over 19000 Baloch including political activists, lawyers and journalists. The relatives of these abducted Baloch have been on constant protest on at press clubs and took rallies on road, and on several occasions they also appeared at Supreme Court to make their plea heard.

The families of enforced-disappeared Baloch have also conducted and successfully completed a Long March from Quetta to Islamabad.

She said: “I am also one of these protesting families because my brother, Zakir Majeed Baloch, was also in custody of Pakistani security agencies. In last five years I have been running from the pillar to post to seek justice.”

She her brother Zakir Majeed was abducted by Pakistani intelligence agencies on 8 June 2009 from Paring Abad area of Mastung town of Balochistan and there are people who witnessed his abduction.

She said: “If my brother has committed any crimes then he should be brought before the Supreme Court. But from past five years the state agencies have not even once heard my plea to locate the whereabouts of my brother.”

She said her aged mother and rest of the family were agonised because of Zakir Majeed’s abduction.

She added: “My mother has sent me to every hearing at Supreme Court.”

She reminded that the then Chief Justice of Pakistan Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry and Justice Jawad had ordered the intelligence agencies of Pakistan to release her brother along with several other abducted Baloch. But, she said, it is sad to hear after their long march many names of missing persons including Zakir Majeed were removed from the official list of missing persons and Supreme Court order list.

The other names include Mushtaq Baloch, Kabeer Baloch, Attaullah Baloch and Saadullah Baloch. “We conducted the long march for the safe release of our loved ones but the so called champions of justice and human rights have even removed the cases of Baloch political activists including my other Zakir Majeed,” She said.

She asked: “Can justice Jawad tell us why the doors of this institution for justice [Supreme Court] are being shut for us? Has Justice Jawad forgotten my plea and the tear of Kabeer Baloch’s mother?”

She also questioned the silence of civilised world on plight of Baloch people and the peaceful long march of Voice for Baloch Missing Persons for justice and freedom.

She appealed the United Nations, International Community, Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch and other international humanitarian organizations to take notice of enforced-disappearances in Balochistan and play their role for the safe release of her brother Zakir Majeed and thousands of other abducted Baloch. (Courtesy to Balochwarna)

Hague: Nuclear Security Summit

By Mutalib Mengal

The 3rd nuclear security summit conference held in a series of meeting establish after land mark in 2009. Wherenss250314_330x220 speeches were delivered, and President Barak Obama in discourse said that non- secure nuclear materials caused extreme threat to global security.

Leaders from 53 counties, United Nation, Russia, European countries, international atomic agency (IAEA), Germany all attended the meeting in Holland’s Hague for the third time. The nuclear security summit is a global conference at highest political level. The nuclear summit is an initiative of President Barack Obama. The first summit was held in Washington in 2010, and the second in Seoul in 2012.

The conference hosted by Netherland the penultimate summit in 2014, by request of American president Mr Obama. The Netherlands is internationally renowned for its commitment to international peace, justice and security. The summits host city Hague, is home to 160 international organizations.

The summit focused thoroughly on Iran’s nuclear program. While Pakistani nuclear program, is safe and sound claimed by Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif. Mr Sharif in his speech at the nuclear summit said that Pakistan is attached the highest importance to nuclear security. He said that Pakistan is a responsible nuclear state and their nuclear program is beneficial for oppressed nations. Mr Sharif said that Pakistan’s nuclear program is supported by five pillars of the state and Pakistan has been running a safe and safe guard nuclear program for more than 40 years.

The Prime Minister further augmented that all the leaders gathered in the summit concerned to take measures in order to secure oppressed nations. While the analysts of the world pondered over Pakistan’s nuclear program as a security threat for oppressed nations.

The members of the summit were obstinate to abate the use of uranium and giving concern to alleviate their economy. It was also sharply under consideration that nuclear security as essential to secure their economy against super-powers. It was also discussed that Taliban’s dismantle is a threat for world security. While Pakistan is unbending to utilize its nuclear program for the benefit of oppressed nations of the world, but in contrast the nuclear powers of the world have dominated the oppressed and oppressed nations feel the sense of in security from these nuclear powers of the world.

The members of the summit it was emphasized to enhance energy resources and aware people about the development projects in their country. Report is being published for Bolan Voice readers to make aware of the international developments.

The 3rd nuclear security summit conference held in a series of meeting establish after land mark in 2009. Where speeches were delivered, and President Barak Obama in discourse said that non- secure nuclear materials caused extreme threat to global security.

Leaders from 53 counties, United Nation, Russia, European countries, international atomic agency (IAEA), Germany all attended the meeting in Holland’s Hague for the third time. The nuclear security summit is a global conference at highest political level. The nuclear summit is an initiative of President Barack Obama. The first summit was held in Washington in 2010, and the second in Seoul in 2012.

The conference hosted by Netherland the penultimate summit in 2014, by request of American president Mr Obama. The Netherlands is internationally renowned for its commitment to international peace, justice and security. The summits host city Hague, is home to 160 international organizations.

The summit focused thoroughly on Iran’s nuclear program. While Pakistani nuclear program, is safe and sound claimed by Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif. Mr Sharif in his speech at the nuclear summit said that Pakistan is attached the highest importance to nuclear security. He said that Pakistan is a responsible nuclear state and their nuclear program is beneficial for oppressed nations. Mr Sharif said that Pakistan’s nuclear program is supported by five pillars of the state and Pakistan has been running a safe and safe guard nuclear program for more than 40 years.

The Prime Minister further augmented that all the leaders gathered in the summit concerned to take measures in order to secure oppressed nations. While the analysts of the world pondered over Pakistan’s nuclear program as a security threat for oppressed nations.

The members of the summit were obstinate to abate the use of uranium and giving concern to alleviate their economy. It was also sharply under consideration that nuclear security as essential to secure their economy against super-powers. It was also discussed that Taliban’s dismantle is a threat for world security. While Pakistan is unbending to utilize its nuclear program for the benefit of oppressed nations of the world, but in contrast the nuclear powers of the world have dominated the oppressed and oppressed nations feel the sense of in security from these nuclear powers of the world.

The members of the summit it was emphasized to enhance energy resources and aware people about the development projects in their country. Report is being published for Bolan Voice readers to make aware of the international developments.

Hyrbyair Marri says women and children were injured and killed in Kalat operation

Pro-freedom Baloch leader Hyrbyair Marri has condemned the killing of common people saying it was wrong to attack6f6478f9053fe4435a15a36fa06cc65bbab7bd46c84321ebe43194001ff12823e162ce5243f42ac13e6e078aa97417d3ce97aecc98099ff527b9da0ec0f559cc15102 innocent people whether by the army or by the Baloch.

In an interview with BBC Urdu, exiled Baloch leader Hyrbyair Marri, said that a war is going on in Balochistan and collateral damage cannot be ruled out.

Asked about the attack on Jaffar Express in Sibi on last Tuesday, he said he was against attacks on common general public.

Answering a question about Kalat operation, Mr Marri said twenty innocent people were targeted and their houses were set on fire near Kalat two days ago.

He said that that women and children were beaten up and injured by forces in that operation.

He said the security forces were wrong to say that only freedom fighters were killed [in kalat operation].

To a question about talks with Balochistan provincial government, he said he was not ready to speak to them because they had no such power.

He said: “Even Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif was powerless before the army.” adding that the entire government was shaking because of only one statement of army chief.

He said Balochistan government sent him messages through different people but he refused to meet the representatives of the government.

He said that those who are part of the provincial government had joined the political mainstream for the attainment of personal benefits.

Answering a question about provincial government’s mandate, he said only 3-4% voted them and they do not represent the rest of the Baloch people.

About the mandate of pro-freedom forces, Hyrbyair Marri said: “If Pakistan army and security forces, jet and tanks withdraw from Balochistan, international community intervenes and the Baloch people have the power then the world will know that Baloch want only independence.”

Asked about the impression that the ongoing freedom movement in Balochistan was limited to some Sardars and Nawabs, Herbiyar Marri said: “If that is the case then why Pakistani army is abducting, torturing and killing common people of Balochistan. It illustrates that common Baloch are part of freedom movement and people of Balochistan are demanding for independence.” (Courtesy to Balochwarna)

The predicament of Ukraine; the footprint to bi-polar world

By Ahmed Khan

Following the disintegration of the United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR), the vanguard of capitalist bloc the American ukraine-flags-2_2853542bpresident Mr Gorge W. Bush (senior) in victorious speech spoke these points:

1-   Human civilization has accomplished.

2-   Socialism vanished-away from planet, eternally.

3-   Capitalism’s triumph is perpetual on Socialism.

4-   America is the only state to lead the entire world.

How illogical words Mr Bush spoke against the natural phenomenon that civilization has accomplished. The science informs that the particles of this universe are varying and each thing with evolution process is changing, so how Mr Bush declared things as dead by stating civilization accomplishment, oafishly. By disintegration of the Soviet or by any other event the America civilization never gets accomplished.

Socialism might vanish-away as temporary or segregated from state system of Soviet or it is hibernating, but it exists in world and socially ideological people are dwelling on this globe and nothing can be evaporated wholly from face of the earth and that after a time repeats it with history in reformed condition. Philosophy and science proved these thoughts and human given this process the title “Negation of Negation”. The socialism provided many plus points to humanity, so how this can be vanished-away by saying of a goofy person or a particular mindset, never can be!

Capitalism couldn’t provide equality and justice to mankind of this planet, though it is backed by notion of religions but after rise of a period it falls, but Mr Bush couldn’t understand or read the engrossment on wall and irrationally proclaimed for triumph of the capitalism on the socialism, but currently dominating on the world system the capitalism spent its age. The capitalism’s ecstasy has finished, and now after the reaching to the culmination it is to decay.

The America got most indebted country in the world and running merely on revenue of arms, ammunitions and warfare’s equipment, and by same impetus she creates contentious zones including organizations that they buy her products and she persist by attained revenue. She can’t earn for sustenance by the capitalism, then how can keep dominancy on over world’s nations and grab their resources through same bum system? The claim of Mr Bush also got refuted now, but he and his country is repudiated plus pigheaded to rule on world like the 90s era, but it is 2014. By now all objective circumstances have changed, which are not conducive for capitalism of that is being vanguard by America.

The Ukraine’s predicament is solid proof for tilt of this world to bi-polar dais. The democratic states, especially the America is denying from democracy and disregarding the people’s adoption. In Crimea, the Russia by plebiscite has got the Crimean people willingness that they want to cede their genuine country the Russia, but it is not accepted by democratic state the America. The democratic norms must be followed by US regarding Ukraine and Crimea.

In shape of Crimea, the Russia has got access to warm water to communicate and trade with world in all four seasons of year. The Russia has abundance of natural resources and raw material to earn and consume. By this coast the Russia also got advantageous points for its army power strengthening to communicate with western countries, especially America in military language.

The Russia has been expelled from G-8 forum but it will not result on her the worst. The decision will impact on European Union associated countries, because this organization signatory states interest are contradicting with America, so they are fed-up with her. Germany acquires 60% gas requirements from Russia via Ukraine. The Ukraine was also earning transit money and it had benefited as it was getting gas on great subsidy which has been cut-off by Russia due to being operated as puppet by string of America.

In Ukraine, a bustle exists because the Ukrainian people want to live with Russia or they prefer interactions with the Russia on America because of great distant and US is also harboring unfair system of capitalism. In the adjacent cities of Ukraine with Russia and Crimea, the protest and unrest was reported which clues about the mentioned citizens sympathies and inclination toward Russia with expectations that it will apply a humanist system which will meet human needs in 21st century.

The America with European Union is going to impose sanction on Russia, which will not reflect on that negatively. The abundance of resources and great army power composes Russia self-reliant, so looming sanction sword of America never can scathe to the socialist revolution history owning state.  The Russia only needs to socialize its state political structure in reformed condition which was relinquished after 90s.

In fact in the Ukraine, western media is exaggerating and propagating to magnify against Russia, otherwise the majority of masses never were willing to be played by America and European Union states. They know better that merely for interests they are gesturing favored and after a short period they will be let-alone in quandary of war and economic crises. The Russia also should learn the maneuver how to combat the media vociferation.

The Russian retreating policy was untrue which she also realized and the Belarus and Georgia are waiting for merger in Russia. The mentioned states have experienced coalition with western countries and capitalism realistically which embittered their lives. They have now tilted toward socialistic system but innovated. Probably, the tumult is up to expand and engulf the mentioned states, because the capitalist don’t let to re-organize slickly.

The discussed region’s people practiced socialism pragmatically in their lives. No doubt each system and things exist in universe with plus and negative aspects but human most of time seeks to avail the positive side. The socialism in better way can be applied by them but they debug the gaffe in it in the light of past experiences.

The Ukrainian must study capitalism’s ugly face in world; especially in Africa its features are visible lucidly that drought, famine and wars became fate of this continent, where fire is ignited by same imperialist to vend her weapons on the cost of people’s blood. Same thing is going to be commenced in Ukraine which is devastated for them but source of earing for imperialist.

Ukrainian never can be disjointed from Russian masses due to common climate, interests and system. The capitalists have created predicament in their country to mold the political disorder.  The Ukrainians inclination, especially Crimea’s annexation proved that world has entered into bi-polar status. The capitalism totally got failed and Mr Bush the former president claims has been materialized as false. The Ukraine’s crises have proved any doubt of world bi-polar but revolutionaries must turn this unrest toward field of a justifying system, like into innovated socialism.

Dr. Malik invites Baloch militant groups for negotiations

Bolan Voice report

The Chef Minister Balochistan Dr. Malik Baloch while talking with express TV said that Balochistan is facing problems such as extremism and terrorism. He also invited the Baloch insurgents for peaceful negotiations.

Dr Malik further said that the Baloch insurgents within the perimeter Pakistani constitution can commence dialogues process. Since we have taken the charge of the provincial government the ratio of tortured bodies’ and abduction of civilianscm-balochistan-himself-supervising-distribution-of-items-in-awaran has abated to a great extent.

Dr. Malik claimed that the acceleration of Hazara’s killing has also controlled by our government. While in Panjgoor and Turbat we are trying to control the situations to best of our potential. He further said that Hairbayair Marri is the master mind of BLA. While talking about the enforcedly disappeared missing persons must be recovered.

Dr. Malik is optimistic to provide quality education and sustainable economy for Balochistan. While addressing on the floor of Balochistan Assembly, on the point of order said that we are trying our level best to empower levies force by equipping them with modern weapons. Due to limited source levies force is not capable to encounter the lapse of security in the province, but we are firm to control the burning situations in Balochistan. Dr. Malik admitted that in my home town Turbat the levies troops have withdrawal guns in spite of being firmed on their task as he augmented that we are trying to sort-out this issue by empowering levies with modern weapons according to the requirements of 21st century.

Balochistan, victims of persecutions

By Gulab Umid, QUETTA

Baloch are settled in Balochistan for the centuries. Balochistan is the historical land of Balochs, now it is divided into three parts; one part is the southwestern province of Pakistan, the Sistani province of Iran also part of Balochistan and situated in the east of the country, and the third one is positioned in the south and south west of Afghanistan.

The area of Pakistani Balochistan is covering 347,190 square km (Population Census 1981). Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan which covers more than 43% of the total area of the country, though its population is not more than 7% out of the total population of Pakistan. The Balochistan’s economy depends on the natural resources, fisheries, agriculture and some industries’ too. In the resources, the natural gas produces from Sui Gas, copper, gold and coal arechildren-women-protest-against-ir-pak-090609-2 valued minerals.

However, Balochistan is the poorest despite of being rich with natural resources and its literacy level is low appallingly. The people of the Balochistan are destitute of their basic needs of living.

Under the British rule, the Kalat Parliament approved a resolution on 11th August, 1947, to persist the independent status of Balochistan. The conflict started between Pakistan and Balochs when state of Pakistan annexed Balochistan by power on 27th March, 1948. Mr Jinnah coerced Khan of Kalat to incorporate state Balochistan, the Khan of Kalat was enforced to sign on the document of annexation at Karachi in March, 1948, even though he had no mandate to from his people to do so.

The forceful merger of Balochistan with Pakistan was the paramount contradiction of Baloch with Pakistan. Subsequently, the annexation dismayed to Baloch people and they stood against this invalid decision and fought under the leadership of Prince Abdul Karim, the brother of Khan of Kalat.

The political parties such as Kalat State Nationalist Party (KSNP), which was banned by Central Government of Pakistan in 1948, the Baloch League and Baloch Nationalist workers Party supported the emancipation war. The fighting was lasted till the arrest of Abdul Karim in 1950.

The current insurgency in Balochistan, roused when mega projects were started in the province without the approval real heir of Baloch. Projects are; Gawader Sear port, Saindak projects and costal high way from Gawader to Karachi, and the construction of garrisons in Kohalo, Dera Bugti and southern areas of Balochistan, such initiatives of state of Pakistan enraged the Baloch Nationalists. The young lady doctor was raped on 2nd January, 2005, at Sui hospital and it had aggravated more the rivalry emotions of Baloch and resulted launch of a war which is underway.

Government used aircraft and bombardment on Dera Bugti inmates which resulted many innocent people murder. Akbar Khan Bugti went to mountains and fought for rights. He was targeted and got martyred with his comrades in August, 2006. The deaths of Bugti provided manpower to the movement and caused it more strengthen. The Baloch National Movement (BNM) leader Ghulam Mohammad Baloch with his two comrade’s name Lala Munir and Sher Muhammad Baloch were picked-up from the office of Advocate Kachkol Ali Baloch on 3rd April, 2009, and were slain pitilessly, the bullets riddle bodies of Baloch political were found near the Turbat.

Through reports of Human Rights Commission of Pakistan has confirmed the martyrdom of more than 140 Baloch political, social activists only in year of 2011. The number of missing persons is increasing with each passing day. The Baloch nationalist organizations claim that the number of missing persons in thousands. The missing Balochs belong to all spheres of life.

The current insurgency is different from past movements in many aspects. The women’s participation and activism in Baloch politics is odd. The Baloch women are more active in the current movement and they have occupied a sufficient space by courageous struggle. In it Women lead the agitation and demonstration in the province as well as they conduct the processions in Karachi and Islamabad. The Baloch women also fully contributed in hunger strikes camps. Presently, Baloch have reached the point of no return, the many have embraced martyrdom and thousand are in struggle.

ONE NIGHT STUDY

By MB Baloch, Awaran

It is a common practice, mostly teacher’s stress students to memorize the given lesson and be ready for tomorrow to read the lesson in front of whole class. Actually we have been observing this hydra-headed monster since primary level. This obscure method hostages the mind of children from the very initiative. Sadly to say teachers are unaware about the psyche of students and do not know how to deal with the students, none of them is interested, because they are being selected without any due process.

So the status quo is unabated. When I got admission in university in second class a teacher prodly advised us that we conscious, it is not school or college level but it is university level you have to create new knowledge rather to rush towards pre-existed knowledge.

The very same moment a feeling of happiness shake my whole body, because I started thinking that a week student like me would get a chance to improve him by innovative knowledge. By the sluggish moving of days my dreams of getting new knowledge mixed with dust, by virtue of position competition among classmates. The unprecedented race of mouse and cat begun by every student in every nook and corner to boost up the percentage.

In lieu of getting of knowledge a bogus scenario of questions memorization diverted the attraction of every student. Rationally speaking this ruthless mind set would produce a catastrophic consequence and wash away the talent of our generation. This phenomenon recently spread at a wide rage and cannot be easily controlled. It is an established fact owing to favoritism by teachers, the culture of one night study has become trend of the day.

The students only collect notes of entire semester and memorize the given question before the exam day. The talented students are lagging behind and those who are active naughty in class without any check are being favored by teachers. Unfortunately, such sort of favoritism is fully deleterious for students, but they are unaware and making themselves satisfies by some marks.

Scarcely, some benevolent teachers can complete their course outline, but majority of them do not complete their course and just give clue about the questions that will come in exam. It is rightly to say that teaching method in our institution is disgraceful and directly affecting the latent of students.

Last but not least, such sort of untidy notions is further deteriorating the already tattered condition of institutions. Being fully aware of the scenario the government must take serious steps to encounter this issue immediately. The further continuity of this menace, undoubtedly will apart the very fabric of our society into pieces. Therefore, it is the right time for the policy makers to take some rational measure to bring an immediate reform in educational system to save our upcoming generation from this evil.

Socialization

By Nadil Shah, Turbat

Socialization is the learning process in which an infant learns norms, values, beliefs, social behaviors and other cultural traits, which are practiced in the society. It is the process of transmission of cultural traits from one generation to the next. This expression can occur by his or her parents, family, and other extended family. It starts from birth to death of a person and it plays a vital role in personality development of a person. The nations, which present in the world, have different languages and culture, until now those are being practiced and recognized in the world due to the speaking and practicing by their previous generations and well socialized people by the back generations.

When a person is born and socialized in Jangle, he or she behaves as Jangly and will have no good manner, behavior, orimages (1) good interaction with people. When he enters in a city, he or she does not know how to interact with the people but if a child take birth in an urban or a city he or she would behave differently as compare to the Jangly.

Moreover, “Feral children” (the children were abandoned or lost by their parents at a very early age and then raised by animals). In 1700s, a feral child known as “the wild boy of Aveyron” was studied by the scientists of his day. That boy, who was found in the forests of France in 1978, walked on all fours and pounced on small animals, devouring them uncooked. He could not speak like human being, and he gave no indication of senses.

Similarly, whatever the manner the child is socialized, in the similar way, the said child will behave with his or her family or other members of society. There are different agents of socialization, which help a child learn the material or non-material cultures.

  1.  Family:  It is the first stage of socialization where a child learns norms, values, l such as way of eating food, going to washroom and other basic practices.
  2.  Peer/group: It is one of the stages of socialization where a child learns other things such as playing games and competitions by his or her age groups.
  3.  School/Education: Education also plays a vital role in socialization of a child. She/he learns different things from her or his teachers at the time of institution.
  4.  Religion: Religion plays a major role in socialization of a child. Religious persons usually influences morality and have ideas about wearing the cloths, delivering religious speeches, and manners that are appropriate in that religion.
  5.  Media: Media is the last stage of socialization, which helps a child to be socialized. Whenever media advertises the things, the children would try to adopt and practice them in their practical lives.

Half of the settlements in Balochistan don’t have schools: Sardar Raza Mohammad Barech

ILM-o-AGAHI initiative aims to encourage journalists to create narrative on education: ILM-O-AGAHI Workshop

Bolan Voice ReportQuetta Sardar Raza Mohammad Bareech, CM Advisor for Education

Quetta – 03 April, 2014 – ”Half of the settlements in Balochistan don’t have schools and government is aiming 300 new schools and upgrade 300 primary and 300 secondary schools in Balochistan, Balochistan today needs more emphasis on education sector and media should also follow suit”. This was stated by Advisor to Chief Minister for Education, Sardar Raza Mohammad Bareech, at the ILM-o-AGAHI education journalism workshop held in Quetta Press Club, today.

He further said education sector is one of the most neglecting areas in reporting in media. Journalists often find it boring to report or securitize the education sector. “Lack of stakeholders interest and commitment to the education sector makes it different for reporters to do follow up on education policy or scrutinize education budget allocation” he added.

The ILM-o-AGAHI, one day workshop was organized by Mishal Pakistan in collaboration with Ilm Ideas (a 3 year UKaid funded program). More than thirty education reporters from all leading media entities, from print, television, radio and online journalism, were selected for the workshop.

While discussing on current scenario of education, Suleman Raja, Assistant Professor, Department of Journalism, University of Balochistan said almost one-half of Pakistan’s adult population is unable to read or write limiting opportunity towards acquiring skills and technical knowledge for enhanced productivity. School enrolments are low and school drop out rates too high. “The budgetary allocation to education has remained around 2% of GDP for the past decade, with a high proportion being spent on recurrent heads mainly salaries, leaving a small amount for quality enhancement such as teachers training, curriculum development, provision of school facilities and monitoring and supervision of education” he added.

Award winning senior journalist, Mubashir Zaidi, while talking how journalists should pitch their stories to their editors, said that “Pakistan’s media should play an active role in promoting education for the marginalised segments of the society as it can help to eliminate economic disparity through the introduction of quality education”.”New entrants in the field of journalism should therefore strive to sensitize the people on the importance of education, as education is the key to success for progress” he added.

Asif Farooqui, Program Manager, ILM-o-AGAHI, while discussing the salient features of the initiative said that, a learning platform for journalists on education would be developed as a ready reference for journalists working on education related issues “The objective of ILM-o-AGAHI initiative is to encourage journalists to create narratives which enable equal access to education for all while analyzing the policy reforms within the education sector and aimed to strengthen institutions” he added.

He further said, “Mishal is also introducing special categories on education journalism in the upcoming annual journalism “AGAHI Awards 2014” to promote education journalism in Pakistan.”

Ahsan Mukhtar, senior Blogger and manager google business group Islamabad, spoke on the art of story-telling through social media. He said in the age of social media, journalism has seen a paradigm shift with the advent of citizen journalism where everyone is in some way involved in spreading news around. Social Media has broken all social and cultural barriers and has extended the reach of a journalist globally. The role of social media in digital storytelling is crucial. Finding a news, verifying it and publishing has seen a revolutionary change and has helped take transparency to better levels.

Through the ILM-o-AGAHI initiative, 18 education journalism workshops will be held across Pakistan for education reporters to increase their capacity and improve the coverage on education issues in media. In each workshop, more than 30 education reporters will be selected to enhance their capacity to report on identified educational challenges and issues to improve understanding and skills among journalists to capture community’s perspective and voice including children’s voice.

Mishal Pakistan is the partner institute of the Center for International Media Ethics and the Global Competitiveness and Benchmarking Networks of the World Economic Forum. Mishal assists the forum in creating soft-data on Pakistan, identifying Pakistan’s competitiveness challenges including primary health & education and higher education.

Love in the mid of terrorism

By Salam Buledi

An altruist and revolutionary poet Habib Jalib says “mohabbat golihon se boh rahe oh, zameen ka moohn kohn se doh rahe” means you are sowing the seeds of love with bloody bullets, you are serving me with stray bullets, in return you earn love. You are rinsing the face of my pious land with the blood of clean-handed innocents.

In 1914, a man of Sarajevo shot dead Archduke Ferdinand and his wife which started the First World War. In 1945, the United States of America launched nuclear attack on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, killing instantly more than two lac Japanese civilians, for it a term was coined (holocaust) that ended the Second World War.

In September 11, 2001, nineteen Middle Eastern terrorist hijacked four American passenger jets and used the planes as guided missile to attack symbolic targets on the Eastern seaboard of the United States. Two planes slammed into the world trade center towers in New York City, causing both towers to collapse. A third plane crashed into the pentagon, near Washington D.C., and the one went down in the Pennsylvania countryside when passengers resisted the hijackers. The devastating series of attacks killed some 3,000 Americans.

As we go through history; we find uncountable examples of terrorism act by many states against dominated states and provinces. The same terrorism act took place in hands of Pakistan; in May 28, 1998 the devastating nuclear test in Chagi Balochistan changed the total infrastructure of Chagi, changed mountains into ashes; killed thousands of innocent people, surface water got mixed up with venomous chemicals used in and changed its color due to uncontrolled radioactivity 90%, cattle and wild life died. Still we are facing miscarriages, birth of abnormal children and high rate of cancers. Still no positive measures have been taken from Pakistan government to clear and combat the bloody nuclear rays.

These all become in chapter of terrorism; especially, rest of Muslim countries are directly or indirectly in the suicide jacket of terrorism, no one knows where and when these jackets will burst and become the cause of many innocent’s unwanted deaths. Not only the rest of Muslim countries are affected with this bloody terrorism but the rest of world is shackled with the prevalent, formidable and virulent terrorism.

The ambit of recent Malaysian passenger jet maybe, in the hands of terrorists or possibly it has been somewhere hijacked and the sinless passengers have been victim of their drastic heinous annihilation.

Still our government is bombed to thwart terrorism in country; policy makers are counterproductive and barren for agreeable armistices and intelligence agencies (ISI)  inter-service intelligence, (IB) intelligence Bureau, (MI) military Intelligence, (AI) air intelligence, (NI) naval intelligence, (FIA) federal investigation agency, Army and FC personals are in a deep slumber and sloth, or are busy only in Balochistan to combat the Baloch separatist movements (which only claim for a free state, especially, demand for equal rights of Balochistan as other provinces have; or resist any kind of injustice, or fight for their positive egos and equal rights). 

Taliban, who are the killer of 70,000 clean handed Pakistani and of uncountable security personals. And forcing government for imposition of Sharia (islamicization in Pakistan constitution and laws), which is impossible in this modern era and developing society of Pakistan. More than 18 times it has been seen on the screens of all Pakistani news channels, that government is going to have an agreement and armistice with Taliban of Pakistan to stop terrorism and bloodbath in Pak-land. Taliban order for massacre of “shia brethren” and claim them of being heretics.

It is time for Intelligence agencies to wake up from 10 year’s deep slumber and sloth and it is time for them to come out of Balochistan and secure “federation, capital of Pakistan to get it rid of insecurity. It is time for them to tackle with Taliban and their offshoots like EHRAR E HIND, rather than unreasonable operations in Balochistan and genocide of Baloch nation. It is time to combat those, who don’t want “Musharraf” to be before court and investigate against him, who did suicide blasts and explosions in capital to interpret the sense of terrorism to create more hurdle for “Musharaf” to be presented in court. Our judges have failed to drag Musharaf in Supreme Court to satisfy the demand of masses and especially of Taliban, in the reaction of government’s calmness and hopelessness. The unrest situations has given birth, too many paradoxical questions and forced Taliban to run amok.

Contemplatives have ascribed that government of state is directly or indirectly involved in such dirty great terrorism acts. Attacks of bloody gang war in Lyari Karachi on civilian are inclined by top political parties of Pakistan. I ardently say, these political parties arbitrarily use and favor these gangs and provide them new weapons, gun machineries, rocket launchers and bundle of dollars.

Love and education are the only swords by which you can fight the terrorism. Why Pakistan is called the mother of terrorism by international countries and human rights commission. Due to lack of love, humanity and education Pakistan is served with such names, such as, a terrorist country.

According to a recent international survey; 7.5 million Pakistani children are out of school and the suicide bombers are those children who are out of schools, who can easily be brain washed by some extremist groups. After a heavy brainwash these illiterate children accept to blow themselves out in the name of Allah and in the greed of Jinnah. The more we educate the nation, the more we see terrorism far. We need education and love in the mid of terrorism.

Media in Balochistan

By Wazeer Marri

Undoubtedly, Media is performing a foremost role in every country by manifesting the verity without any discrimination and it works to modernize the codes of living in the societies. In addition, works like a tutor for the nations, which often shows the whole features of live.

Furthermore, it becomes the players of each up and down. On the other hand, in Pakistan media, especially social media is totally leading oppositely but in Balochistan its role is deleterious.

In fact, it shows the real faces in the other provinces but in Balochistan it portrays distorted image. However, in Balochistan it has uplifted voice about poverty, army operations, and flood, discovered graves in Tutak and state institutes abduction and throwing of mutilated bodies of Baloch youth. Such incidents were ignored by state media mainstream.

It has been noted, recently the long march by the VBMP, which was led by Mama Qadeer Baloch and other women and children incepted from Quetta to Karachi, and then from Karachi to Islamabad in the pursuance of justice. They were holding placards and photos of their beloved one also asking from media why are you silent?

Without any doubt, the one who witnessed the innocent children were moving on foot and holding placards couldn’t stand paying mercy to them. Astonishingly, the media had blacked-out the discussed event and let no room of misgivings about them for being biased.

I request to the media’s authorities that they must not to be materialistic and pay attention toward Balochistan issue and highlight it nationally and internationally.

Three Baloch student critically injured in pre-planned attack by gangsters

Media Report 

Islamabad: A gang of eight students attacked and critically wounded three Baloch students in Preston University Islamabad.

According details Baloch students Khalid Kurd, Mehran and Fakhar were having lunch at University’s cafe. When a gang of eight students Umer Satti, M.Ali, Ahtasham, Afridi BBA students in Preston university led by Mashood Ali approached them started swearing them for speaking Balochi with each other.

They thugs were armed having daggers and they punched Khalid Baloch on his forehead with Knuckle duster. Khalid forehead started bleeding but they continue beating Khalid and his friend until they got unconscious and fell on ground.

The University administration did not come to the rescue of Baloch students. In fact later the university administration turned against the Baloch students and was found to be protective of those criminals. Baloch students reported it to nearest police station which is I 9 Thana. ASI Ashraf registered their complaint application but no arrest was made until the filing of this report.

The injured students were brought to PIMS Hospital and each one got 5 to 6 stiches. Their MRI and X-Ray results show that their wounds were serious and it was an obvious murder attempt.

The V.C of Preston University and director colonel Nadeem called these Baloch students for a meeting on Monday morning at 11am. But it is not yet known whether any action has been taken against the criminals who attacked and injured Baloch students.

There is CCTV camera and that is quite credible evidence of the incident. The University administration has the CCTV evidence.

It is the fourth time that Baloch students studying in Balochistan have been attacked and the government of Punjab has not taken any action against those responsible for such attacks.

BHRO protests against operations in Balochistan

By Salahuddin Baloch

The Baloch human rights organization conducted a demonstration in front of Quetta press club. In demonstration different walks of life people actively participated.

The demonstrators were holding place-cards, banners, emblazoned with demands strongly to end the ongoing military387231_458439310899059_2108225317_n operations in Baloch predominant areas.

The protestors while addressing to gathering strongly denounce the acts of violence in Mashkay, Dera Bugti, Turbat and other parts of Balochistan. They said that the state forces have burnt the houses of innocent Baloch’s in Mashky and also taken away their livestock along with valuables. It is proved from this act of violence that the state elements are obdurate to catalyze the ongoing genocide of Baloch nation to get vanished-away this nation from Balochistan.

The dissenters addressed that the state elements have arrested Baloch youths from predominant Baloch areas and enforcedly disappeared them. Thousands of Baloch have been viciously tortured by state elements. The state elements have abruptly sacrilege the bulwark and trampling culture codes of Baloch by victimizing Baloch children’s along with women. Speakers blamed.

The state elements have committed to prolong their military operation vehemently to suppress the Baloch nation. As it’s clear from the recent act of violence in Turbat near Shapok and Kalatuk, where state elements barged in to houses and misbehaved with Baloch women’s and persecuted to them. They accused.

The protestors addressed that the dormancy of United Nation and international community has raised perplexity in Baloch’s mind by adoption of criminal silence. The participants while addressing the media emphasized that the United Nation would not be considered a human right defender until it takes serious measures to establish peace and stability for oppressed nations of the world. Because every human being is rightful to express but the right of Baloch nation have been sullied since its enforced annexation with the state. While the defenders of humanity have turned their face over this critical issue of Baloch nation and they have become unsuccessful to sort out Baloch issue. It is pathetic for the international community as the sate elements are shedding blood of Baloch nation as it is equal to the murder of entire humanity. The speakers notified.

We urge the international community, United Nation, human right organizations to take immediate steps to encounter the act of Baloch genocide and ongoing military operations against Baloch. The speakers plead in their speeches.

The importance of reading books

By Aman Peer Jan, Turbat

The joy of reading books can’t be described in words. It’s something that you can understand only by actual experience.873-12-Little-Big-Books

There is much more to life than your work and spending time aimlessly with latest technology products. Reading books gives you that much needed break from the chaos in your life. It instills peace inside you, makes you relaxed and also exercises your brain in the process.

When you read a book, it feels great to put yourself into a different world that the writer has created for you. Ask any avid reader about this and they too will agree that reading a book is same like watching a movie.

When you spend hours and hours reading a book, creating a world with different characters in your mind, your imagination powers are sure to get a boost. Depending upon what you read, you will come out with the same experience as when you watch some really good movie.

I have been a voracious reader ever since I learned how to read. That’s why I never get bored even being alone for a long time. I have found that reading books is the best medicine to kill boredom.

What starts with reading story books, when you are a kid, turns into reading books for improving yourself as you grow older. From story books -> technical & management books “self-improvement” spirituality and beyond, the journey is fantastic and you learn something with each passing day.

You understand your thoughts and emotions more clearly. It makes you realize who you really are and makes your life more meaningful. Reading books will make you a better thinker and a better man.

Thanks to technology you can easily find good articles to read on the internet. A great article can inspire and motivate you as much as a great book. It’s not how much you read, but what you read which is more important.

The only reason I recommend reading books over short articles is because when you spend hours with a thought or an idea then it’s more likely to stay with you for long time rather than when you spend just few minutes tinkering with it.

It’s easy to read a quote or an article for few minutes than discard it and continue with what you were doing. But when you invest your time in reading a good book, you end up spending at least a few hours reflecting on its contents as you read. Thus, it’s likely to stay with you for a longer time and have some positive influence on you.

A good reader also varies his reading pace based on the content he is reading and what he wants to get from it. The purpose of reading news articles is different from reading stories, which is different from reading important documents. Over a period of time, you will understand how to vary your reading pace and comprehension based on what you read and what you want from it.

Also, just reading good books is not enough. The way you read it is more important. When you come across a new idea or a different opinion, think upon it deeply. Don’t accept it or reject it blindly. Try to reason with it and understand the writer’s point of view.

Reflect upon the thoughts that come to your mind whenever you read a great book. You will know whether a book is great or not based on the thoughts it awakens inside you.

As you continue this habit of reading and reflecting on what you read, you will start forming your own thoughts and values. It will challenge your mind and the thoughts, customs and traditions that you have grown up with.

However, there is one thing which you should always remember when you make this a daily habit, as you are investing a part of your life doing it. Too much reading, without any thinking and action isn’t of much use. When you know you are ready to do something it’s time to move to the next step. Act upon what you think is right and what you have decided to do.

It’s easy to get so much involved in the reading process, that you forget that the main purpose of reading is to make you a better person which can only happen when you act upon it. Just finishing one book after another without any real action from your side won’t help you.

What kind of person you want to be and what you would ultimately become depend greatly upon the type of content that you read and how much you act upon them.

Reading articles that promote negativity, hatred and give wrong information is dangerous. It’s better to not read anything at all than read such articles.

Whether you read on some electronic device or prefer reading an actual book. That’s your personal choice. Personally, I prefer to read actual books whenever possible. I find that even after hours of reading my eyes feel fresh and full of energy. That’s something I don’t find when I read too much on my computer.

Human rights abuses in Baluchistan

Preceding insufficient years have perceived numerous distress and discomfort among the Baloch people residing in Pakistan, Balochis-tan; the most valued and rich province, has had to overwhelm with the bullet pierced bodies of the political activists, journalists, students to make it all. True, since the inception of the Pakistan till that date Baluchistan has been the victim of human rights violence and abusing the human values are committed. Despite being aware of the wide spread human rights violations and the international community media and other (HRO) Human rights organizations kept silent, on the inhuman actions acted by state organizations.bhro

in the other words, the human rights organization have been whirling a blind eye to the activities of discords and thousands of Baloch nationalists have been assassinated from their homes, even the situation is getting worse and the human massacre, getting new name in the violations of human rights in Baluchistan. According to Dr.Allah, Nazar (Baloch nationalist leader) that Baloch have reached to the point of no return, whereby they only see one of the chapters, that’s freedom of Baluchistan for which Baloch nationalist are struggling.

On the other angle of story, Balochistan is the largest resource owing province of Pakistan on which Pakistan, relies on and number of these resources are utilized from Baloch land. On the other side the state has taken different measure to console Baloch people not to talk about emancipation by providing different packages. However, that has failed as receiving dead bodies of their loved ones one side, secondly being facilitated with so called packages has not healed the pain.

There seems no prospect of the solution of Baloch issue except emancipation.

GULAB UMEED, Turbat

Jam Durruk, the leading poet of semi-classical Balochi poetry

By Aman Yousuf

Balochi has brought quite a bit expedient offspring into being who have been serving their mother, Balochi, through ages and Balochi has rewarded them for their attendance by making them ever alive in the golden pages of Baloch history. Among those immortal offspring a shining name is Jam Durruk, the leading poet of semi-classical Balochi poetry.

The materials available about Jam Durruk, which includes Longworth Dames’ book “popular poetry of Baloches” , another book by Kamil ul Qadri titled “ Jam Durruk “ , a collection of Jam’s poetry titled “Durchain”, which was compiled by Bashir Baloch and some articles by different writers, claim that Jam Durruk was born in 18th century, belonging to famous tribe of Dombki.

His father’s name was Karam Khan, famous as Karmmo. The place where Jam Durruk’s parents belong to was “Lahdi”; however, he spent most part of his life in Kalat and Dhadar. Where Jam was born no facilities for education were available and in such a place Jam’s mental disposition awakened and a thirst for knowledge developed in him.

When Jam grew young, he started composing poetry. Here it is noteworthy that Kala was being ruled by Naseer Khan Noori those days and he had a great respect of scholars, poets and other artists. Thus, jam’s heart-touching poetry paved his way to khan’s court.

Though jam was the poet of Khan’s court, he never composed any laudatory poem (Qaseeda) for Khan. Jam’s poetry is according to public temper, full of sympathy and hope; however, he is known as romantic poet whose poetry is all about his beloved, about whom, Longworth Dames mentions that Jam’s beloved was from Khan’s court and Jam tolerated physical punishment for his beloved.

Furthermore, what is more interesting about Jam’s poetry is his usage of both famous dialects of Balochi (Makrani and Rakshani dialects). Besides composing poetry for beloved, he also turned some famous love stories into poetical form, for instance, the famous love stories of Shereen Farhad, Laila Majnoon, Shereen Dosteen and Bebagar Grahnaaz. Besides this, he has brought some ethical stories from Persian into Balochi such as the story of Hazrat Eisa and Barri Faqeer.

About Jam Durruk death these is no confirmed date; however, it is said Jam’s death was separation of his beloved. No doubt, Jam remains pioneer and leading poet of semi-classical Balochi poetry and his great poetry makes him animate till a Baloch speaks Balochi.

Homophones, Heteronym, Homonym or many more

By Muslim Shafi

The piece of shorthand is to clarify the misunderstanding of English Language neophytes and all the readers’ misconception about some commonly confusable words that are always a question mark because of their pronunciation, spellings, meanings and origins. I have come across a lot of folks who negotiated well-nigh words like; “Sex” and “six”, “meat” vs. “meet” and so forth.

I overheard plateful students chanting the two similar pronounced words sex as “Sax” and six as “Sex” and this made me to pen down the terminologies for such bamboozling words which always confound a reader, and this may help some bookworms and more importantly a plethora of pupils, too.

Before turning to the concerning point, some radical educational hints are bottom-line to be shared. There are subjects whom are not acquainted with some concern materials and they have no approximation about the under-discussing materials, and then are supposed not to negotiate theme or elements they are not familiar with, because this creates a very bad impression on ones educational background. Education does not stand for destroying the topic that is under lip service, but actually it means that to come up with an inspiring outcropping by hammering out the deal in question and fact is that, “if none of us is going to lose, then nobody is going to win!!!

There are populaces or students specially who are yet not recognizable with the conceptual terms which can beautify their learning mechanism and in conjunction with, assemble them courageous to go ahead for the skyrocketing education which they are desired to extract in this mono life. To me it is not only upon teachers to teach everything vis-à-vis any subject. And, if it the matter of English language then, it has a teeming grammatical background and to wide open the door of English Language, there are some imperative terminologies that are mandatory for the learners.

English Language is not only restricted to the terms like; noun, pronoun, adjectives and reporting and resulting clauses, but in best of knowledge there are many other terms that can really simplify our Basic English crystal clearly. Unfortunately we all are until today limited to book of “Streamline” and at the other hand the Institutions of English Languages are centering on the “Part of Speech” and “Tense” which one can contemplate at home by self-study. One day I questioned a study of Level two who is studying in Quetta which is the capital of the State to define “alphabet?  His jaw dropped open the widest; so, it displays that all of the English Linguistic Academies are trying to make speakers, not writers or knowledgeable educates for the society. Students are very much glad that they can speak English, but the tantamount students get stuck when their tempo gets jammed between the river while sits to jolt down a piece of writing or an application. A student of Quetta cannot denominate “Letter” then; I do not imagine that the student of Jho or Barkan could delineate it???

Part of Speech and tenses are not the basic grammar of English, we all have been in touch with English Language centers, but none of us surely have heard about Phonics, Pangram, antonym, diphthong, synonym and many more that are key of English comprehension and as well as the crucial need of the modernized world! Not clearing these words have banned us and today we are not English Lingo abecedarians, just only “speakers” and speaking does not grandstands that one is a “English Genius”.

Much more vocabularies English language is wrapping its certain way understanding that are in huge number and students whom are suffering from Grammar-phobia should go for studying them, because apprehension of each term would convert any one a grammar-mania or a grammar-lover.

Now let’s come to the point;

Homonyms

homonym is a word that has the same spelling and sound as another word, but a different meaning.

For example, saw (a cutting tool) and saw (the past tense of see) are homonyms.

They have the same spelling and sound but different meanings.

Etymology or Word origin: Greek, “having the same name”

(homos = same, onoma = name)

More examples:

Bear and bear.

Fan and fan.

Well and well etc.

Homophones

homophone is a word that has the same sound as another word, but a different meaning and spelling.

For example, meat and meet are homophones.

Word origin: Greek, “having the same sound”

(homos = same, phone = sound)

More examples:

To, two and too.

Big and beg.

Bare and bear etc.

Heteronym or Homographs

homograph or heteronym is a word that has the same spelling as another word, but a different pronunciation and meaning.

For example, bow (a weapon for shooting arrows) and bow (bending forward) are homographs. They have the same spelling but different meanings.

Word origin: Greek, “having the same writing”

(homos = same, grapho = write)

More examples:

Desert and Desert

Can and Can.

Read and read etc.

Hope this piece of writing would help the English learner in great number.

Reach me at balochmuslimbaloch @gmail.com

ARTS AND HUMAN

By shams-Ul-Haq

In this world and with our short-lasting lives no one has the idea of the birth of the arts, from where it flourished and how it was during its first and ancient time. And arts and we humans have the relation of the body and soul. Arts flow like blood in every human’s body which again and again touch the heart which is the center of human feelings; the feeling which can make one suffer from a dejected and hapless life and the inverse with one else who experiences the worldly paradise with beautiful and wonderful relations and heart-felt positive thoughts about him/her and the rest of the human race, even further about the perilous and domestic animals, the still plants and whatever he/she feels about. Our lives are driven by feelings which every human being keeps a bounty and limitless deep down the heart and mind.bafcff0d1ef412d14d0e26a5cd1222b3John Jude Palencar_Becoming Human

Arts have such a tilting the balance influence upon our lives that is unimaginable, so what is meant by the arts? Any kind of knowledge or regular subjects which are not related to scientific studies such as language, history, philosophy and other studies are also defined as the arts which are singing, dancing, painting, acting and on and on……… in order to judge the arts and science in your amazing life a question is there and let the true and honest answer reach your own lovely ears. Do you know any famous doctor, engineer or any scientist from anywhere who is still alive? Most of your likable answers are in negative. And the next question is: do you know any famous singer, actor or anyone who is related to arts and still takes the breaths of his part to fight the life and death? Judge it yourself and also let yourself know the true answer of this last question; doesn’t it show that the arts flow in your veins mixed with the red furious blood of yours?

The positive and negative influences of arts drive the society; when every one of us gets together we form a society. And every individual is as important as the head for the body to establish a society either improved or damaged. Like every other thing in the world arts itself is not negative WE MAKE IT NEGATIVE! And art is one huge power which can bring peace as well as the lack of it brings instability in a region. We can have examples, in the societies where arts is valued and done well they have no worry, if compared with the societies where there is no arts if there is, but with no positivism. ‘Arts’ doesn’t only mean to have an obsequious manner towards women, men or anything else. It means to place everything in its place without breaking the natural laws and crossing the social limits. It’s impossible and lunatic to make every human being culturally and artistically alike. Because, we are by grace of natural laws if they are broken it means we have our end. Let everyone swim in his/her own territory. Arts, like every other thing, have positive and personality building characteristics, but only for the sagacious and wise. And there is no room for negativity except in the heart and mind of a failing personality.

Today we can see our society with poor arts or no arts. We have something but we have forgotten it copying others and breaking the natural and cultural rules. Copying other nations is like cutting the lion’s head and fixing it in place of the goat’s head. We have our talents which are not dead, but dormant like the volcano, resting like a virus and sleeping like a valiant and legend human being. Get up and be lost in thoughts rather naming everything with IT’S JUST…..And every one waiting for your talent. Clap for others but show what you have got. Don’t hate others but love what you have! And always keep in mind you have got something which other people haven’t. You are born with something try to recognize that. That is what you like to do just do it unless you are doing something dangerous, unhealthy and destructive which causes damage to you or others take pride in your dreams and passions and just GIVE IT A THOUGHTFUL GO!

And arts are the knowledge and revealing experiences of every human being since the beginning of human race. All of them are gathered in arts. So, let’s have a dive in the full flowing of arts to live the past at the same time we live the present. Let’s not just listen to the story, LET’S LIVE THE STORY!

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

Compiled BY Aurangzeb Baloch

The green pigment in plant is called chlorophyll.

The byproduct of photosynthesis is oxygen.

Spindle is formed during the Meta phase.

Binary fission is an asexual form of reproduction in bacteria.

Mercury is the smallest diameter.

Whale is a mammal.

Persons with AB+ blood group are said to be universal recipients.

Sensitive layer of the eye is retina.

Laughing gas has chemical composition of two elements Nitrogen (N) and Oxygen (O).

Phosphorous is an essential component of nucleic acid.

The chemical name of caustic soda is sodium hydroxide.

Earth crust has the abundant reserves of silicon, oxygen and aluminum.

A cell with nucleus is eukaryotic cell.

Albert Einstein proposed the concept of all motion.

Albatross is a sea bird.

Jupiter is the biggest planet in our solar system.

Tiger is the biggest species of the cat family.

Silicon di-oxide is the chemical name of quartz.

Pythagoras formulated basic laws of geometry.

John kepler was the first scientist to prove that planets move around the sun.

Sulphur is a secondary plant nutrient.

The British fought plassy war against Siraj-uddula.

The Aryans arrived in south Asia in 3000bc -3500bc.

Jabal- Noor is situated in Ghari-hira.

Palestine is known as the land of prophet.

Ramain is the religious book of Hinduism.

Batha valley is situated in Madina.

Hazrat Muhammad (peace be upon him) gave the key of Bait ullah to Usman Bin talha.

The lowest percentage of internet user is found in Africa.

The world largest smart phone producer is china.

The head office the UN environment program (UNEP) is in Brasilia.

The head quarter of world health organization is located in Geneva.

North Korea conducted its third nuclear test on February 12.

Charna Island is located in Arabian Sea.

Apple co-founder and a visionary and creative genius, Steve’s job died on October 5, 2011.

The world oldest known city is Damascus

China and Africa is the biggest producer of manganese in the world.

Malaysia is the biggest producer of rubber in the world

Japan is called the land of rising sun

Star families and Variable Star

Stars are not always the simple, unchanging points of light that they may at first appear to be. Many of them occur inimages (3) families of two or three, or sometimes in much larger groupings.

Double and Multiple stars

When seen with binoculars or a telescope, many stars turn out to have one or more companions. Sometimes the companion stars are unrelated objects in the foreground or background, in which case the pair form what is called an optical double. But in most cases, the stars lie close together in space, forming a pairing known as a binary orbit around each other, although it usually takes many years to detect any motion, and in the case of multiple stars the orbital motions can be very complex. Separating the components of double stars is a popular activity among amateur astronomers. The closer together the stars are as seen from earth, the larger the aperture of telescope needed to divide others vary in brightness in cycles that last days, mouths, or years. Examples of double and multiple stars, star clusters, and variable stars can be seen with small instruments or even the naked eye.

When the stars are very unequal in brightness, the fainter star (the secondary) can be difficult to see because of the glare from the brighter one (the primary). Some doubles, called spectroscope binaries, have components that are too close together to be separated through an optical telescope. Only by studying the spectra of light from these stars are professional astronomers able to establish that they are double.

Variable Stars

A variable star is one that various in brightness over time. Nearly 20 percent of such stars are eclipsing binaries very close pairs in which one star periodically passes in front of the other, causing a drop in the total amount of light reaching the earth. The most famous eclipsing binary is a star called Algol (in the constellation Perseus). But most stars that vary in brightness do so because they pulsate in size. The most common of these are red giants and supergiant’s called Mira stars, after their prototype, Mira in (in Cetus). Such stars very by to 25,000 times in cycles lasting 3 months to 3 years. Many other red giants and supergiant’s also pulsate, but with less regularity and smaller changes output than Mira stars. Relatively rare, but important, are Cepheid variable, named after Delta cephei. The pulsation period of these yellow supergiant stars is directly related to their luminosity, so by timing a star’s variations astronomers can work out its actual brightness. Since the brightness of a star in our sky depends on its distance from us, such stars act as valuable “standard candles” for measuring distance in space.

The cohesive bases of the Baloch Nationalism

The subject has been taken from book of Taj Mohammad Breseeg “Baloch Nationalism, its origin and development”.

            THE EXPANSION OF BALOCH ETHNO-LINGUISTIC COMMUNITY

The Baloch ethno-linguistic identity took shape through a lengthy process. As mentioned earlier the Baloch fought with many mighty. Persian kings in the fifth and sixth centuries before Christ. The Shahnamah tells us about their genocide by the most powerful Sasanian king, Anushirwan (531-578 AD) around 531 AD. During the reign of Caliph Walid bin Abdul Mailk (705-715), the Arabs captured Balochistan.

With the emergence of Arab rule over the region in the early 8th century, the Baloch gradually accepted Islam. The Arab rule brought some tremendous socio-economic changes in the region. Dealing with the province of Makkoran and its capital Panjgur of the 10th century, Le Strange quotes the literary geographer al-Maqaddasi as his authority, and states:

Bannjbur  (Panjgur) according to Maqaddasi had a clay built fortress protected by ditch and town was surround by Palm-groves. There were tow gates of the city, Bab-Tiz opening south west on road to Tiz and Bab-Turan north east in the road to the district of that name of which the capital was Kuzdar [Khuzdar]. There was a stream to water the city and Friday mosque stood in the market square, thought there were really only Moslem in name being savage Balusis (Baloc-his) whose language was a jargon.

The britsh historian Thomas Holdich, also discussed the economic prosperity of Makkoran under the Arab rule. He states that in Makkoran the Arabs shaped out for themselves overland routes to India, establishing big trade centres in flourishing towns, cultivating their national fruit, the date, in Makkroan valleys            and surrounding themselves with the wealth and beauty of irrigated agriculture. Thus the emergence of new cites and Commercial centers in Makkoran and central Balochistan ( Tiz or Tis, Panjgur, Khuzdar, etc.) benefited the material growth of the people. There recruitment to the Arab armies improved their warfare skills and the tribal might. These developments enabled the Baloch to from their own polity with fall of the Caliphate in the end of the 10th century. It must be borne in mind that since the 13th century, the Baloch population has constantly moved along a roughly, west-east direction. The Mughal invasion in the mid 13th century followed by Timur,s forays into the country in the breakdown of irrigation system forcing large scale tribal migration from Makkoran further north and north east where they entered Sindh and Punjab in the 14th and 15th centuries.

The largest Baloch migration eastward, however, occurred in the early 16th century. At this period the Baloch tribes of Rind and Lashari fought several memorable wars among themselves. There hostilities continued for 30 years, between 1490 A.D. and 1520 A.D in and around sivi, modern Sibi, and Kacchi with its capital at Gandawa. Consequently, this led to a massive wave of migration towards Punjab and Sindh. The Rinds who migrated from Sibi to Punjab spread up the valleys of the Chenab, Ravi, and saltej rivers. it should be noted that the first record of the Baloch movement into Sindh is from 13th and 14th centuries. Simultaneously two other Baloch tribes, the Dubia and the Hout moved up the Indus and Jhelam in the same period from Makkran. About 1470, Multan’s ruler, shah Hossein Langah (1467-1502) allotted lands on the western bank of the Indus for the settlement of the Baloch. Since the fifteenth century, they started to put down proper roots in Sindh. In the year 1770, the Baloch overthrew the Kalhora Dynasty and Become the rulers of Sindh. The Talpur Mir, a Baloch clan formed the new Mir dynasty (1770-1843). According to the census of 1901, some twenty-three per cent of Sindhi Muslims were Baloch. It is interesting to note that the Sind Muhammadan Association, a landlord organization, petitioned Lord Montagu on his trip to India in 1917 that they wanted a separate province composed of Sindh and Balochistan. This reflected the significant number of the Baloch tribes in Sindh and the prominence of their leaders, the mirs, in the early 20th century.

Why did the Baloch disperse over the vast territory between Kerman and the Indus? The main reason according to Gankovsky was the slow but steady development of the productive forces. As a result. the Baloch clan organization was disinterring and feudal relations taking shape among them. As population grew, the grazing grounds were compelled to take in new lands. Inter-tribal wars and clashes becomes frequent, and the defeated tribes either had to submit before the victor or had to abandon their lands and look for new lands. Warcraft, which bulked large in the life of the Baloch as early as the tenth and elevation centuries, rapidly gained in prestige.

Under the reign of Shah Abbas Safavi (1585-1628), some Kurdish tribes migrated into Balochistan. Their number increased in the time of Nadir Shah (1730-1747). Simultaneously, several Jadgal tribes took refuge in Bahu and Dashtiari, western Balochistan. Their migration possibly took place in the end of the 16th century during the Malik rule in Makkoran. A vest assimilation process continued for many centuries. As observed by Spooner, it continued up to the 18th and 19th centuries. He had credited, party the success of Nasir Khan’s policies and party the later British administrative classification, for the latter integration and consolidation of Baloch national identity. Confirming the assimilation of non- Baloch tribes into Baloch society, Freoz Ahmad argues,” Sme of these tribes retained their languages, but got so thoroughly assimilated into Balochi ethnicity that there is no different between them and other Baloch people of today.” However, according to Fredrik Barth a Norwegian anthropologist, large parts of some Baloch tribes acknowledge Pathan origin.

As mentioned id earlier sections, over the course of centuries, the language and the culture of the Baloch have come to predominate throughout most of the country, so that the majority of the homeland”. He continued, “For example look to our tribal names, I am a Mir all the Mirs speak Sindhi in Sindh”. According to writer and former vice chancellor of Sindh University, Dr. Nabi Bakhsh Baloch, only the Baloch tribes are known as Mir in Sindh.

In certain parts of the Balochs country, however, such as Kalat, the Brahui language is predominant. Along the border areas of Sindh, Afghanistan and Iran, there are some minor ethnic groups, which settled, in the 19th century or early 20th century for example, jamot of Lasbela, Pashtuns of Quetta, jatts of Kacchi, Sibi and Derajat, Persian-speaking Tajiks and Dehwars Sistan Mastung are among such minority ethnic groups in Balochistan.

(to be continued)

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