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Title February, 2014

Bolan Voice February 2014

Intimidations and the anticipation of VBMP marchers

By Aziz Ejaz

Voice for Baloch Missing Persons (VBMP) has initiated its second phase in search of justice for the missing and 1743458_524677227649484_1845703245_ntheir family members after a grueling long march on foot from Quetta to Karachi,  and then from Karachi to Islamabad, on 27, October, 2013.

From the scratch the participants were those, who belong to the families of persons had gone mysteriously  missing since the regime of General Pervez Musharraf and the successors of it, and others Baloch including women and children who were holding the placards and photos of the missing fathers and brothers were also the crucial members of the March, that is being led by 70 years old Mama Qadeer Baloch, father of martyred Jaleel Reki who was allegedly killed by the inter-service security intelligence on 22nd November, 2011, the dead body of him was recovered from a rugged area of Mand, district Turbat.

The VMBP, being one of the humanitarian  organizations based in Balochistan, toils to rise the voice for  oppressed and human rights denied people, started  first phase of long march from the resilient landscapes of division Kalat and the most disturbed areas of Kuzdar like as Thokat, to the long banquet plan areas of Sindh and Punjab at the second phase of long march to seek justice for the allegedly disappeared persons and family members who are undeniably uncertain about their beloved ones whether they are alive or not. However, very freshly according to a report stated by provincial health minister Ramat Ali Baloch that the mass graves discovered from the most troubled area of Kuzdar ‘’Thokat’’, the decomposed bodies found in are of the missing Baloch who had gone missing and in the same area the audacious members of the long march were threatened harshly to be slain if they move a step ahead, but despite all these scaredy-cat intimidations the committed shoulders of MaMa Qadeer Baloch intended to face all barricades for the most depressed nation who holds one of the wealthiest lands of world but is in nastiest condition of human rights violation, and the VMBP long march, alongside terrorizations, eventually reaching to its destination with hope and courage.  This has undeniably earned a great name and it made a history which is more persuasive than the long march of salt, the March which was embarked upon in 1930 by Mahatma Gandhi and his fellows in India. Mahatma Gandhi proposed a non-violent march protesting the British Salt Tax, continuing Gandhi’s pleas for civil disobedience.  The Salt Tax essentially made it illegal to sell or produce salt, allowing a complete British domination in India. It was 240-mile journey from Sabarmati to Dandi, a coastal place in India, where Mahatma Gandhi took a thump of salt to break the sanctions imposed by British on salt selling or producing during 1930.

Since salt is necessary in everyone’s daily diet, everyone in India was affected over the implementation of British sanctions on salt extraction for the citizens. Gandhi’s grueling march for the inhabitants and against British brutalities over the citizens in the form of implementing tax is worth discussable which eventually pave a way  and  enabled India to gain their freedom from Britain. The purpose that compelled Gandhi with his 78 male activists of truth and resolution to embark on a march was to seek justice for the victimized Indian who was utterly passing their two times meals by exploiting the salts from different reservoirs of salt at the coasts of India. It has been pleasantly quoted by Thomson Jefferson that, ‘’ when injustice becomes law, the resistant become duty’’. It was a sort of resistant, fought against British but nonviolently for the citizens whose subsistence was being run by exploiting the salt of coasts.

hayder-ali-baloch-vbmp-long-marchThe succession movement in Balochistan may happily be feeling the March of VBMP, a struggle that will undoubtedly earn an international name and pave a way like Gandhi’s March towards the significant purpose of Baloch movement. State’s brutalities as comparing with the situations in 1971 are not dissimilar. However, are gotten the distorted shape of human rights violations.  In 70’s thousands of Bengalis were executed inhumanely and treated with the worst acts but eventually the sacrifices from scholars, teachers, students and formers bore a successful fruit to let the Bengalis be able to made a free and sovereign  country as we called Bangladesh.

Martin Luther King says, ‘’Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere’’. Injustice is injustice everywhere, but the purpose of seeking justice diverges as the long march from Gandhi was a different and VBMP’s is for the safe recovery of missing persons and diverting of the attention of international benevolent committee towards the appalling situations owing to which every individual is affected and every family has rightly sacrificed an individual to the big cause of liberty.

The two phase grueling long march of Baloch under the supervision of Mama Qadeer and Banuk Farzana Baloch embarked upon from Quetta and receiving the life threatening intimidation from the first days of its initiation. These sorts of threats as we observed are the cowardly act and the response behind it from the concerned authorities is fairly condemnable and callous. Seeking justice over here for the team of VBMP was not an easy task where at every moment of breath a loaded truck tries to hit the dispirited members and later call it an accident not a deliberate attack.

Adolf Hitler once said “One who wins without problem, it’s just victory. But one who wins with lots of trouble, he creates History”.

Mama with his companions didn’t go out just for a victory but to create a history that has already gotten a great name for the rights of human inhabit throughout entire world. They confronted the life threatening intimidation on the way for a great triumph which has undoubtedly achieved walking on foot for such a long and fatigued journey just keeping in minds the each member ‘’the journey of a thousand miles begin from the first step’’, it is another worth mentioning topic, why it has been given a scarce coverage from electronic and front media, respectively.

‘’Human progress is neither automatic nor inevitable… Every step toward the goal of justice requires sacrifice, suffering, and struggle; the tireless exertions and passionate concern of dedicated individuals’’.  Said by, Martin Luther King, Jr.

The tireless toils often pave a way to go through and this sort of efforts are considered the most influential ones on the way in seek of justice. VBMP’s member dedications individually are praiseworthy as they fought with their courage on the battlefield of threats, having guns with a harsh response in various forms.  Keeping in consideration for an outstanding triumph, the committed walkers sacrificed themselves and toiled tirelessly. They didn’t care of themselves to move on blistered feet. The participation of women is a great human progress to indicate there is something exceeding over limit has compelled them to come out for seeking justice.  It is a failure of humanitarian organizations who claim for preservation of the righteously rights of human being and stand steadfast against the violation of fundamentals rights according to international laws, but regarding Pakistani administrated Balochistan where nearly 1800 individuals have gone missing allegedly being given a deep ear, is over to expectations.

When against apartheid regime in South Africa a movement initiated to decline the curse of radicalism by black men the strikers were as well threatened, slain and executed but eventually with the great won, the equalization on the base of racism came into functioning and no discrimination state started performing under the leadership of international peace icon Nelson Mandela, who was one of the winners of Nobel Prize devotee for peace worldwide. In other regions where the cause of justice came into appalling situations there undoubtedly emerged the uprisings that toiled for the recovery of it in its utmost determinations.

Baloch marchers were accompanied by life threatening intimidation from various ways but the intentions and pledges of the living legends are appreciable as they toiled tirelessly and didn’t turn their face back to see whether they are being persuaded or not, they walk in cloudy weathers in the coldest days of January, they go through the fear-provoking darkness nights in the forest of Sindh and crossed vast far-sighted gardens of the Punjab just for a purpose which is historic and fetching in real sense.

Eventually, Gandhi’s long march paved a way for the Indians to achieved their freedom from British and let the citizens be enabled to exploit the salt, but let us see what will the VBMP’s exhausted long march brings with it at the last step of destination for the most deprived and inhumanely treated families of Baloch who are on the way for their beloved ones have gone missing since the emergence of tyrannies regimes..

Balochi Certificate Course at University of Karachi

Khurshid Qazi (panjgoor), University Of Karachi

khurzshid qaziLanguage is most fundamental element of any culture, which is ascribed or achieved at birth. It is the natural medium of communication via which human convey their massages that are diverse in nature. Balochi is the mother tongue of Baloch people. It is marked as one of the regional language among 68 languages of Pakistan.

Among 68 regional languages only four languages; viz, Sindhi, Bengali, Urdu and Balochi have yet been included in curriculum at University of Karachi (KU). Fortunately, Balochi is one among those four languages which is taught formally at University of Karachi.

This step really is worth praise for those who took pain for Balochi classes. No body can deny the fact that initiating Balochi Certificate Course at KU is a milestone and a monument hitherto in the history of KU.

 It is aptly said that journey of thousand miles even starts with the first step. The credit for that first step goes to Baloch teachers and Students of University of Karachi.  It is in this context the initiative was taken by Baloch students in a cultural seminar which was, subsequently, wildly well come. Baloch students remained successful in persuading the KU management and the notable personalities of University.

March 2, 2012 was a gala day for Baloch Students when the concerned KU management announced for Balochi classes at our cultural seminar at arts auditorium university of Karachi.

Later on Prof Dr. Ramzan Bamari, Prof Dr. Akhtar Baloch Prof Dr Jafari, Prof Saleem Mamin, and Prof. Dr Fateh Muhummad Burfat and other’s hard work bore fruit. Otherwise without their moral and physical support this would be a hard nut to crack.

With the collective efforts of Baloch teachers and students, Balochi classes were introduced at KU in 2013.In 2014 balochi classthe second session of Balochi at KU is in progress. For this cause a well known personality in the field of Balochi literature, that is, Sharaf Shad is leading the Baloch classes. Furthermore,  we the student of KU still wish for one more wish inasmuch as wish is father to thought and THE WISH is the to have a BALOCHI DEPARTMENT at University of Karachi.

I will sum up with this point the dream of martyred Saba Dashtiyari has come true.   In this connection, we have not to rest on our laurels but always struggle hard to serve the identity of the Baloch nation.

International Human Rights organizations take notice the discovery of mass graves: BNM

By Advocate Nadir Langove

Baloch women political workers at Quetta press club read the statement of Dr. Manan Baloch, the central BNM-Flag4(2)secretary general of Baloch National Movement (BNM). Through a statement it was informed that mutilated bodies of Balochs have been finding ceaselessly and this series is unending in present regime of Dr. Malik, too. The Voice for Baloch Missing Persons (VBMP) Chairman Nasarullah Baloch and voice chairman Mama Qadeer Baloch’s forbearing prolonged hunger strike also couldn’t invite the attentions of International human rights organizations about the transgressions against Baloch nation, illogically. The mentioned organization is marching to Islamabad after accomplishment of its first phase; from Quetta to Karachi. All these endeavors mean to attain the concentrations of United Nation and other human right organizations about atrocities of Pakistani state on Baloch nation. It is bizarre, Balochistan’s vulnerable situations and protest of Baloch also couldn’t win world’s sympathies and support in its favor. Here it is not defect of Baloch regarding apathy of international world but interests hampering them to step on towards righteous.

The discovery of 10 mass graves of Baloch missing at (Tutak) Khuzdar is a catastrophic in human history. The buried people in mass graves were awaited by relatives to rejoin them but ironic consequences took place by this terrifying incident. The authorities are misleading to world by mentioning victim’s number below than two dozen, in fact dead bodies’ strength is 159 or it may go above. The state media and other institutions hypocritically are stating the discovered corpse’s numbers merely 13 which is totally fallacious. It was stated by the BNM leader Dr. Manan through the statement.

The world organizations have double criterion about Kashmir and Balochistan. When mass graves were discovered in Kashmir and Bosnia, then these incidents were hot on the media, the humanitarian organizations also took the sky on heads about those. America and other states of world are conferring aid to Pakistan for bring peace in Afghanistan with intention to enjoy the region’s resources, but that granted funds mustn’t let to be used for genocide of Baloch. It is out spoken that excluding the resolve of Baloch issue, the peace never can be maintained in the region.

Amnesty international and other international human rights organizations must take prompt notice of human rights abuses in Balochistan, and their intervention only can suspend this ongoing grim series of throwing mutilated bodies of Baloch and dumping Balochs into mass graves in this region, onward. Plead to UN and other organizations by Baloch National Movement via statement.

International players manipulate to gain interests in Balochistan: BSO-Azad

Bolan Voice Report

1723560_584214471667736_978374375_nBSO-Azad Australian’s zone organizers conducted their senior body meeting under the presidency of Zaib Baloch in Australia, where the chief guest was Banuk Karima Baloch, the chairperson of BSO-Azad, and in meeting the future amendments were discussed. At the start of meeting the participants got silenced in the prestige of Baloch martyrs and for the martyrs of oppressed nations of the world, while addressing to participants, the chairperson of BSO Azad Banok Karima Baloch alleged that the international players are playing in Balochistan to seize the Balochistan’s natural resources and adamant to stabilize their economy.

The international players along with the establishment of Pakistan is adamant to elevate the Gawadar seaport for its trade, because Gawadar being the cheapest source for the marketing of their products. Which is a conspiracy against the liberal movements in Balochistan but adversely America, turkey, Saudi Arabia are financially are supporting the Pakistani establishment to suppress the Baloch cause by occupying this nation’s resources and the funded money being received by the establishment and which is utilized against the Baloch nation by way of enforcedly disappearing the Baloch youth and political workers in unidentified places.

As the chairperson of BSO Azad Banuk Karima augmented further that in such worse situations the Baloch nation should emphasize on that they must be zealous to their cause of getting emancipated from the establishment, and thoroughly understand the oppressive policy of the international players of the world. Otherwise, it would be quite impossible to get emancipated from the occupant. The senior chairperson of the BSO Azad (Australian zone) Zamoor Baloch said that Balochistan is being the worst place for the journalists of the region and Baloch cause is receiving lack of international coverage, due to that the Baloch cause is suffering the worse act of genocide in its history.

Addressing to the meeting participants, he added that the state forces have abducted thousands of Baloch from different areas of Baloch predominant areas and tortured them brutally as the recent act of genocide in Khuzdar near Tutak, where more than 160 Baloch bodies were discovered from mass graves, which were brutally martyred by the state forces. Even it was quite difficult to identify most of the mass grave bodies but two of them were identified by their National ID Card, they were the residents of Awaran. it is thus, sad that United Nation, the champion of human rights in the world even showed lack of interest in Tutak’s mass grave bodies which is a threatening indication for oppressed nation of the world, then where the oppressed nations of the world go and demand for impartial justice of their rights?.

As the Zonal Organizing Committee of BSO Azad (Australia) said that it is the time to pressurize the international community to show their keen benefits in Baloch issue by getting us emancipated from the occupied state. At last BSO Azad (Australian ZONE) committee was set-up in which Zaib Baloch was elected as the zonal organizer, Asad Baloch as the deputy organizer and Faisal Baloch was elected as the head of the organizing committee.

Silence of the grave

By Saher Baloch

KHUZDAR: Tutak is an area of harsh contrasts. This observation is borne out by the beautiful landscape that 53005d9ce0dd2surrounds Tutak — and the open graves scattered across it.

A 55-kilometre drive out of Khuzdar, the area is surrounded by rugged mountains, apart from a few houses and lanes at the beginning. But as one moves forward, the mud houses are left behind and Tutak comes into view. It is a desolate area. There is not a single person or animal around.

Appointed by the Supreme Court to head a judicial tribunal earlier this month, Balochistan High Court judge Noor Mohammad Maskanzai was given a tour of the area. With Khuzdar Deputy Commissioner Abdul Waheed Shah in tow, the members of the tribunal quietly walked around, mostly picking up and ‘investigating’ things themselves — without gloves.

Flown in especially from Quetta for the purpose, the investigating team was under-equipped without pen or paper, or a digital camera. As the team approached the graves, an unbearable stench filled the air. A red handkerchief was lying near one grave, while a few bones were found in another. The team could not determine whether they belonged to a human or an animal. The men would stop at each grave and look at the judge, expecting him to say something, but he would quietly move to the next.

Around 10 graves were visited by the tribunal, each one appearing to be different from the other; some had been dug 10 feet deep, and others around seven. The DC pointed out: “The land around this place is barren and rough. But the one around the graves is soft and wet. The ground feels different near the graves. It is easy for a local to understand this. It is evident anyway.”

What appeared in every grave were the remnants of limestone. “It is one of the quickest ways to cause a body to decompose,” DC Shah explained while others looked on.

Between Jan 17 and 18, around 13 bodies were recovered from Tutak. As a debate ensued about the identity of those in the graves, there were statements claiming that the bodies belonged to some of those who had mysteriously gone missing in Balochistan.Two bodies were initially identified by the authorities as Qadir Buksh and Naseer Ahmed. They went missing in September from Awaran, said a senior member of the Voice of Baloch Missing Persons. Speaking to Dawn over the phone, Nasrullah Baloch said: “Qadir Buksh was picked up a few days before the earthquake in Awaran, while Naseer Ahmed was picked up a few days after. Their families recognised them by what was left of their clothes and the ID card found in the pocket of one of them.”

The last grave that the team visited was wide and appeared bumpy. The DC was asked whether there might be more graves in the area. “I don’t think we’ll find anything else. This is what there is to this place,” he said shortly.

A few feet away from the graves was what appeared to have been a training camp. Some 400 spent bullets were recovered from the area in front of us, and as many were collected from under the surrounding stones. The bullets belonged to 9mm pistols and submachine guns, the officials said. There were also casings of a 7mm sniper rifle.

A few cardboard shooting targets were also recovered. ‘Shia Kafir’ was written on one piece of cardboard with a black marker. A militant organisation’s name was written on top of another. A few steps ahead, a packet of instant noodles lay stuck under a stone. A mile ahead from the shooting targets stood a mud house without a ceiling and surrounded by polythene hanging from the sides. A few steps on the right from the abandoned house was a small square area that had been used as a toilet, according to a Frontier Corps man. A gutter flowed beside it.

Back at the sessions court in Khuzdar, as tea was being served, an official wanting to know what the team found at the site, innocently asked whether we were able to see “a well behind the mountain we visited”. “There are more bodies there,” the official said as he waited for a response.

(Courtesy to Dawn)

BHRO denounces discovery of mass grave in Tutak

Bolan Voice Report   

The Baloch Human Rights Organization (BRHO) conducted a demonstration to denounce the discovery of mass bhrograves in Tutak in protest women and children have participated in large number, and got gathered in front of Quetta press Club. They were holding place-cards, banners inscribed with demands strongly protesting against the inhuman act in Tutak. The demonstrators strongly denounced the act of violence in Tutak and appealed to the international community to take serious action to suspend the series of ongoing genocide of Baloch and state terrorism.

“The international community should pressurize to Pakistan for its act of violence in Tutak and assist in registering the Baloch case on forum of the international court of criminals. The international court of crime should setup an impartial committee in order to take out DNA tests of unidentified bodies discovered in Tutak’s graves near Khuzdar in Balochistan. The international community should investigate about dumped bodies under foreign DNA experts with absolute fair and Justice.” The speakers demanded via speeches.

The central committee members of BHRO (Baloch Human Rights Organization) Zamoor Baloch, along with the sister of Mir Wahood Riasani addressed that it is proved by the recent discovered mass graves in truth that Pakistan is swayed to violate human rights in Balochistan to vanishing-away the nation of Baloch. As we constantly urged the international community and United Nation to get involved in the issue of Balochistan. They said that the state is involved in the act of genocide of Baloch and now she is refactored to eliminate Baloch nation and enjoy Baloch resources. Meanwhile, the abduction of youth has become a routine practice for the anti-Baloch elements, but in spite of these inhuman acts against Baloch Nation UN is dispassionate. The silence of human rights defending and justice providing organization to human is stunning and this silence categories them in offenders list, because in the perspective of Balochistan’s situations their apathy is similar to crime against humanity. The speakers blamed.

The international community along with United Nation is dormant, the genocide of Baloch is getting the worse and now level of viciousness has reached on point that innocent Balochs are being martyred and buried collectively in graves by anti Baloch elements of the state which is a critical threat to peace and stability in the region. The recently discovered mass graves in Balochistan’s district Khuzdar, near Tutak where more than 150 dumped bodies were discovered which were brutally tortured by anti Baloch elements by putting chemicals on their bodies that they should not be identified, even some state institutions confessed this act of violence against Baloch nation. The central member of BHRO Zamor Baloch furthermore said that recent act of genocide and mass graves discovery have clearly exposed the state brutalities towards Baloch nation.

It is pathetic that United Nation is aware of the recent act of genocide of Baloch nation but is motionless. The UN Working Group in a press release confessed that more then 14000, thousands Baloch have been enforcedly disappeared by the state forces but it is astonishing that being awarded of the situations in Balochistan they have turned their face which is misfortune of oppressed nations of the world.

As we urge the international community why they have turned their face over the act of the worst genocide of Baloch as Baloch are not human being? Or the United Nation is a fake organization that it does not support peace and stability in the world including Balochistan. The participant of protest inquired.

After registering their protest the Baloch Human Rights Organization members sacked peacefully.

Asian Human Rights Commission expresses grave concerns over discovery of mass graves in Balochistan

Bolan Voice Report

Asian Human Rights Commission has expressed grave concerns over discovery of mass graves in Balochistan and imagesurged on the United Nation for probe in to matter.

A report of Asian Human Rights Commission appeared in media, in that discussed organization has declared the extreme dismaying to discovery of mass graves in Khuzdar, where around 169 dead bodies have been found. The organization demanded that United Nation send a fact finding commission to probe into the matter. The local people living in vicinity had hinted about mass graves and buried peoples ages are above than 15 years in mentioned graves.

The Asian Human Rights Commission through its report informed that the relatives of Missing Balochs whom beloved are buried in mass graves when came to site after knowing about incident, then there already deployed state security official detent them from Tutat (Khuzdar) mass graves area by baton charge and for disperse of aggrieved forces also fired in air. AHRC report reveals.

The tale of agonized families of Missing Balochs

By Ghulam Farooq Baloch

The issue of enforced disappearances in Balochistan is worsening on each passing day; it has become the routine baoch mothermatter of security forces. No day passes without abduction of political workers, students and people from different walk of life. The sense of insecurity is prevailing among the people of the province whether they are traveling, going for work or they are in educational institutions and in hospitals.

The enforced disappearance started in the regime of dictator Musharraf, during the PPP regime the bullet riddled bodies of these missing persons started appearing and in the regime of PML-N the discovery of mass graves have begun.

How stern impacts of the incidents will be on the families of the victims! They are suffering from the psychological and psychical trauma.

Many of the victims are the sole bread winner of their family. The disappearance of their loved ones will not be less than a catastrophe for them. They severely stuck into the clutches of disappointment and deprivation. The incidents completely thwart their children’s student life; they could not precede their education; eventually, they have to abandon their educational process along with their siblings.

Most of the families of the victim’s socio economic condition are extremely poor; they do not have any source of income, they are suffering economically and socially, even they don’t have resources to approach the media and judiciary.

They had to work for the fulfillment of their family requirements, a large number of people besides supporting their family they have participated in various demonstration and rallies for the safe recovery of their loved ones. They had fear in their heart that they might be abducted, as well; because several times they were threatened by security forces and asked to put-off all activities which they had been carried-out. Their efforts were confronted by constant life threats. They have seen the decomposed bodies of the disappeared persons and they know how victims are tortured and how they were extra judicially killed in illegal detention cells. The families who are suffering from psychological trauma had to confine themselves to a limited sphere. The aggressive attitude of these agencies suppressed their all fundamental rights, they were unable to walk freely, talk freely or do other activities. The constant fears of enforced disappearance have left a great impact on their every movement of life.

 They are suffering from the psychological trauma, it will become long lasting; the trauma all the time impairs their self, they cannot sleep because of it. It has generated an extreme fear in their heart and mind wherever they go to feel as if they are being chased or picked up. The trauma is so deep which completely isolates them from others, and they cannot express themselves. They have been walking with this trauma and they no longer remember the things; they would feel anxiety, depression and deprivation.

mother_baloch-abductedThe family members will be suffering from psychological trauma after the disappearances of their loved ones, they are waiting  for their kith and kin, they feel profound grievance, then they cannot feel happiness; the people celebrate different occasion’s with zest and zeal but they cannot as others do, for them all the days are insipid. They are waiting and looking every day everywhere to see the glimpse of their loved ones.

This state of uncertainty and fear has frightened every individual of their family they do not know about their loved ones weather they are alive; sometimes they visualize horrible thoughts in their minds that their loved ones may not be distended by barbaric state agencies. Every movement brings them frustration and long lasting pain.

Families of the victims are starving for the safe recovery of their loved ones, but their free movement has been hampered and they have been several times threatened to be forcibly abducted or targeted. Every movement of them is being monitored, so under these circumstances how they can be happy. They are victims, the state has to provide them security but instead of being lenient to them they have been suffering from the crucial hands of the state agencies. State should have felt their pathetic condition rather than harassing them. With every tick of the clock they feel insecurity; this is why none of them have been able to revive their condition. The constant fear and psychological trauma caused by the state agencies have entirely paralyzed their complete life and they are psychologically and psychically not like other people, but they are dying every movement.

It will be the utmost responsibility of the state and its institutions that they should therapy the families of victims psychologically and psychically, so that they will get rid of this long lasting trauma. They are victims state has to give them an excess to their loved ones and has to provide them safety. But unfortunately the provincial and federal government failed to provide them justice.

Psychology of colonialism

By Kifayat Ullah Baloch, Kharan

Kifyat ullah kharanColonialism means the practice by which a powerful country controls another country, especially using force and sends people to live in colonized area and take all affairs including business in the control. Many African and Asian countries were trapped in colonialism and some are still colonized.

Analyzing the defects of this system, some psychologist studied the psychology of colonialism, among them the great revolutionary theories are presented by Frantz Fanon (Al-Jazahir). He was born in Martinique a French colony, in 1925. He got his higher education and gained an opportunity to practice in a hospital as a psychologist. He understood profoundly the struggle against France in 1954, and traced the psychology of colonialism by treating the patients.

Fanon gave his theories about colonialism in his two famous books (Black Skin, White Mask, 1952), (The Wretched of the Earth, 1961). According to Fanon, “Decolonization has always violent phenomenon”. Fanon narrates the psychologies step-wise, and according to him “Establishment crushes and pressurizes the revolt with the help of army, police and armed forces, however, its objects are to stabilize peace and order in colonized area”. But in fact, colonizer crushes to common people’s rights, creates feuds and conflicts, and with the help of power enslaves to locals of colonized area. Resultantly, such heinous acts give birth to rebellion thoughts, depression, discouragement and compulsions.

Fanon says, “Cruel takes the pillar of (religion) to align his brutalities. She uses color and creed variations of the Frantz_Fanongeneration as for distinction and calls the name of God to tranquil the people against injustices”. He shows and expounds that God does not want worldly luxurious lives, and for poor paradise is decorated hereafter. Thus, people live in fool’s paradise.

Fanon tells us that colonizer adopts such language in which they consider local people like beast, animals and uncivilized nation; even they call them devil (Satan). Her objective is to mock them and proof them inhuman.

Fanon tells, “Colonizer adopts psychological tricks and propagates that local people cannot run the country, they come to develop them.” But as a matter of fact, she loots the precious resources, mineral of that country.

Colonizer uses power, violence and greed to reinforce or to strengthen his occupation. Colonial power disguisedly emanates such impressions that she is taking the political and spiritual reforms for colonized territory. Colonizer takes advantages of dissimilarity in caste, tribe, language, religion and culture and tries to ignite battle among them by ground of these variations.

Moreover, colonizer roots out all prevailing norms and imposes its culture, language and religion on colonized area masses and it coerces the local people to adopt those. Then an occupied nation speaks his language, adopts his culture, and wears her dressing and so on. Such sort of mentality according to Fanon is called “Colonial mentality”. Then people forget their history, culture and language. But with the passage of time it will be palpable to local people that they are walking collectively on the way to suicide. If they at once do not ponder on this, then surely they will be vanished-away from the pages of history.

Therefore, it is better to root out and distract offers of cruel and castoff occupant state, but establish own state to get rid of this and it ensues to cross the river of blood and fire. Then occupied state will be the owner of his own fortune. They should walk on dangerous walk path. According to Fanontz, “To achieving a free state the armed struggle is needed most”.

Baloch national structure, Baloch land, resources are ours, but establishment is looting them rapidly by using the colonial system. The 1960’s theories of Fanon are not only deep but lesson for us, too. It is probable that some political workers and philosophers dislike the derived consequences and theories of Fanon, but they cannot explain relationship and feelings between local people and colonizer. Fanon visualized the dream of such state where people love one another; there must not be any conflict or feud. According to him, “It is possible, when local people awaken, and take necessary steps to abolish slavery”. As it is said, “If you want to win a war against your enemy, so be like that; if rival is a beast so be beast”.

Re-visiting Yellow Journalism: Sensationalism in Commercial Media

By Shireen Khan

ShireenA decade more than hundred years ago, the boycott took shape in winter 1897 as public and university libraries, reading rooms, and social club in New York city banned two battling competitors: William Radolph Hearst’s ‘New York Journal’ and Joseph Pulitzer’s ‘New York World’. They were together derided as vile, shameless, frivolous and morally bankrupt. The press seized evocative term to disparage the ‘Journal’ and ‘World’ – a phrase swiftly adopted as the boycott’s rhetorical centerpiece.

That phrase was ‘Yellow Journalism’.

The term ‘yellow journalism’ and also known as the ‘yellow press’, was coined by Erwin Wardman of the ‘New York Press’ and never elaborated what it really meant, and only after a while, in explanation he gave in his paper was a comic strip in 1998 saying ‘We call them yellow because they are yellow!’. But however, the content that raged public opinion and stroked bans can be summarized as the type of journalism that presents little or no legitimate well-researched news and instead uses eye-catching headlines to sell more newspapers. The aim deciphered was to increase newspapers’ circulation and attract more and more readers; the willingness to experiment with layouts (sometimes the front page of the ‘Journal’ was dominated by a single article and outsized illustrations), and the content that was established in that era was majorly crime stories with no obvious in-depth research and sensationalizing it with nationalistic agendas and painting it with connotations like ‘we’ and ‘them’. Readers began buying their own copies of Journal and the World, providing a small stimulus to sales. But in large measure, yellow newspapers overwhelmed the boycott because they were more energetic, more enterprising and more interesting to read that were the practitioners of what the Journal called “Old and fogy journalism”.

The main effect of yellow journalism is often adduced to Spanish-American war in 1898 that is believed to have 1393622_755713911111290_496936280_nfought due to the exaggerations of terrible conditions in Cuba. Newspapers like Hearst’s ‘Journal’ and Pulitzers’ ‘New York World’ sensitized the events, picturing it as the ‘worst kind of human torture possible’; thus provoking conditions that spoke frivolity, which, in return, is believed to be the main reason that raged American Public and made its Government step into war. (Though some mass media researchers like W. Joseph Campbell considers it as a myth), but this concept is a generally accepted module mass media practitioners.

In the 21st century, where the major mass media channels are owned by major corporations (like in the US, Cable News Network CNN is owned by Turner Broadcasting which in turn is one of the companies owned by the media conglomerate AOL Time Warner, and developing conglomeracies in Pakistan like Independent Media Corporation owning GEO TV Network and several newspapers), it is believed to be interrogating, somehow, the same media attitude which with its partial picture reporting, blurs the real picture of reporting with the complete absence of objectivity. And this was highlight by Noam Chomsky in his land mark work on Media entitled ‘Manufacturing Consent’. He explains what the present commercial media to be called “concentrated ownership, wealth, profit seeking nature of major mass media firms”, where advertising is essential to media firms, profit and success, which encapsulates the major theme of these media houses as ‘Breaking ethical rules of journalism with the absence of objectivity in reporting’, thus intervening the very relationship of media to its masses. The media content is aimed at higher ratings and viewership in electronic media, which in result only increases its advertisements, and the real issues and the in-depth reporting curtained. And this is what the essence of “yellow journalism” is – not presenting the  news in an unbiased manner, but rather spinning and reworking it to make it as dramatic and urgent as possible in an effort to boost demand and consumption.

In Manufacturing Consent, Chomsky and Howard theorized that mass – media firms would at times censor themselves if it would maintain a beneficial relationship with “credible” sources such as government figures. These sources have the attractive benefit widely recognizable and considered trustworthy by the general public making them valuable as a marketable commodity.

The content that the present commercial media adheres is based on commercial interests. Mainly, seeking to attract the advertisements which mean more money and more profit. Even when the conflict is real, the packaging of them is invariably shallow and unquestioning; like sportswriters, and war correspondents abandon any pretense of objectivity and detachment, and cheerfully root for that side. Arundhati Roy, when pointing out to the role of what she calls as “Corporate Media” in Iraq war, she induces the opinion that there were very significant events taken place in the Iraq war but were never reported. Even foreign media correspondents of CNN, while reporting, used many words like “partial terrorists” for Iraqi people who stood against the US invasion. CNN seems to be virtually chomping at the bit for, as they have already marketed it, a “Showdown: Iraq”.

The commercial media happens to believe in something near to contemptuous, as with the first bomb dropping, the theme music, catchy titles, and expert analysts will be rolled out. Media show screaming public and people starving for food, with disasters that had been dawned on the people on seemingly interrogative enemies that are beyond the nationalistic agendas. The slogan of ‘’patriotism’’, which is important to public and advertisers who sought to market them. This is a viscous circle which end paves to commercial interests, and to the media, even more profit. US media, like the working of media in 1896, punctured the very essence of objectivity in reporting. In their propaganda model, Noam Chomsky and Howard Zinn points out the most significant point throwing light on media workings “A propaganda approach to media coverage suggests a systematic and highly political dichotomization in news coverage based on serviceability to important domestic power interests”.

YELLOW-JConsidering the current workings of commercial media in about all around the world, it is the revival of yellow journalism. Sensitization of issues to govern profit for corporations, the media is however, highly questionable. The vacuum has been created in between the masses and its media, and the situation however is important to be addressed. For it is important and vital for future prospects of social dynamics and the workings of media in it. It will only lead to disaster, and more conflicts. The absence of facts which are important for objectivity in reporting, and presenting a blur picture of events will create more vacuum, more war, and even more consequences.

14th February: The Season of Romance

By Agha Jahabzaib Baloch

Human is a part of nature cannotbe segregated and can’t help to rejoice or monotonous. After the farewell of 4_kisswinter the livings get revival and mingled in evolution process to lead its origin. The animal and birds make pairs and amate to process its species onward in the evolution circle. The human by reflection of surrounding occurrence also gets in wheel of evolution and makes pair with opposite gender and shares the feelings with its partner. By this way, the human keeps continue the revolve of evolution process. It is part of instinct and never can be expunged from human and other livings. If the past of the human be looked, then a sketch gets draw in mind spontaneously that human by want of nature after winter celebrated in various aspect and named its parties with region and climate colors. Science tells that this universe is reflection or picture of matter, where electron upholding positive bar whilst neutron owns minus bar, meantime nucleus is braless. Universe’s existence is being controlled by positive and minus bars which can be resemble with male and female and so on continuously, the human is a part of this universe and never can be exempted of its effects and with opposite gender can survive. Thus, it on both occasions; rejoice and mourn shares with opposite sex and adoring presently valentine day of spring exactly reflection of same. Human by entrance of spring celebrated and enthusiastically resumes its work in various fields, so its celebration never becomes joyful without combination of both genders. The valentine day also represents human’s social and psychological wants.

February has long been amount of romance. It is the month associated with valentine celebrations. We have heard the name of St. Valentine being uttered before us in this season of love, but just to who is this St. Valentine? Why is month associated with love and romance? Let us search out how valentine day came into practice?

As it is today, the origin of this lover day goes back as early as 270 A.D. The history of valentine day is impossible to be obtained from any archive and the veil of centuries gone, by its made the origin behind this day more difficult to trace. It is only some legends that are our source for the history of valentine day.

The modern St. Valentine celebration are said to have been derived from both ancient Christi and roman tradition. But the rise of Christianity in Europe saw many pagan holidays begin and renamed for and dedicated to the early Christian martyrs.  Lupercalia was no exception in 496 A.D POPE Gelasius turned lupercalia into a Christian feast day and set its observance a day earlier, on February 14th. He proclaimed February 14th to be the feast day in honor of saint valentine, a Rome martyr who lived in the 3rd century.

 According to the catholic encyclopedia, there were at least three early Christian saints by the name of valentine time. While one was a priest in Rome, another was a bishop in Terni, Nothing is known about third St. Valentine except that he met his end in Africa. Surprisingly, all three of them were said to have martyred on 14th February. While most scholars’ believed that St. Valentine was a priest who lived around 270 A.D in Rome and attracted. The disfavor of Roman Emperor Claudius II, who ruled during the time it, is said that when Claudius II met valentine, he was to have been impresses by the dignity and conviction of the latter. However, valentine refused to agree   with the emperor regarding the ban on mirages. It is also said that the emperor tried to convert valentine to the romans gods and even attempted to convert the emperor, knowing the consequences fully. This angered Claudius II who gave order of execution of valentine.

 The story of St. Valentine has two different versions the protestant and the catholic one. Both versions agree upon saint valentine being a bishop who held secret marriage ceremonies of soldiers in opposition to Claudius II who had prohibited marriage for young men and was excruciated by the latter. During the life time of valentine, the golden era of Roman Empire had almost come to an end, lack of quality administration led to frequent civil strife. Education declined, taxation increased and trade witnessed a very bad time. The Roman Empire faced crisis from all sides while they had grown too large to be shielded for external aggression and internal chaos with existing forces. Naturally more and more capable men were required to be recruited as soldiers and officers to protect the nation from takeover. When Claudius became the emperor, he felt that married men were more emotionally attached to their families, and thus will not make good soldiers. He believed that marriage made the men weak so issued edict forbidding marriages was a great shock for the Romans, but they dared not to protest against the mighty emperor. The kindly bishop valentine also realized the injustice of the decree he saw the trauma of the young lovers who gave up all hopes of being united in mirages. He planned to counter the monarchs order in secrecy whenever lovers thought of marrying they went to valentine who met them afterwards in a secret place and joined them in sacrament of matrimony, and thus he secretly performed many marriages for young lovers. But such things can’t remain hidden for too long. It was only a matter of time of before Claudius came to be known of his friend of lovers. While waiting his sentences in prison, valentine was approved by his jailor Asturias, it was said that valentine had some saintly abilities and one of them granted power is to heal people. Asturias had a blind daughter and knowing of the miraculous powers of valentine he requested the latter to restore the sight of his blind daughter. The catholic legend has it that valentine did thought the vehicle of his strong faith a phenomenon refuted by the protestors version which aggress, otherwise with the catholic one.

Whatever the fact, it appears that valentine in some way did succeed to help Asterius daughter. It caused great grief to the young girl to hear of his friend’s imminent death.  It is said that just before his execution; valentine asked for a pen and paper from his jailer and signed a farewell message to her ‘’from your valentine’’ a phrase that lived ever after as per another legend, valentine fall in love with the daughter of his jailor during his imprisonment. However, this legend is not given much importance by historians.  The most reasonable story surroundings St. Valentine is one of not centered on Eros (passion for love), but on a gape (Christian love) he was martyred for refusing to renounce his religion.

couple-valentines-dayValentine is beloved to have been executed on February 14,270 A.D by the Middle Ages, valentine become as popular as to become one of the most popular saints in England and France. Despite attempts by the Christian church to sanctify the holiday, the association of the valentine days with romance and court ship continued through the middle ages.

 The holiday evolved over the centuries by the 18th century, gift giving and exchanging handmade cards made of lace ribbons and featuring cupids and heart began to be created on this day and handed over to the man or women loved. This tradition eventually spread to the American colonies. It was not until the 1840s that Valentine’s Day greeting cards began to be commercially produced in the US. The first American valentine day greeting cards were created by Esther A How LANDA Mount Holyoke, a graduate and native of Worcester Howland known as the Mother of the valentine, made elaborate creations with real face, ribbons and colorful pictures known as scrap’’. It was when Howland began valentine card in large scale that the tradition really caught on in the United States. Today valentine day is one of the major holidays in the U.S, and has become a booming commercial success. One of the earliest valentine cards were sent in 1415 A.D by Charles Duck of Orleans to his wife during his imprisonment in the lower of London the card is now preserved in the British Museum. The 14th day of the month of the February became a splendid day for the lovers  to express their emotions has million across the world present their loved ones with candy, flowers, chocolates and other lovely gifts. In many countries restaurants and eateries are seem to be filled with couples who are eager to celebrate their relationship and enjoy their togetherness through delicious cuisines there hardly seems to be young man or woman is not keen to make the most of the day. It is not exactly known why 14th of February known as valentine day there may be doubts regarding the actual identity of valentine, but we know the reason behind this kindly cleric named valentine who died more than a thousand years ago and he really existed, because archeologists have recently unearthed a Roman catacomb and the an ancient church dedicated to a saint valentine. Whatever furtive exists behind Valentine’s Day but let your love ones know the 50 reasons why you love them.

Restraints on Female-education-reform

“Education-wise, our society is going through a tumultuous change and is totally mired in primitive practices”

By Jameel Jansheer

Whenever It comes to “The female-education reform “ epically the social impediments without any invitation baloch female studentscome forth in a non-participating society like ours, where education either of the both genders male & female seems to have become of predominantly no prominence. Specifically, the concept of women-education is a so far-fetched idea in various parts of our third-world country, irrespective of the cultural, social and financial constraints which are both depriving thousands from education in our country, and in their natural course condemning the country itself far more to a swift state of regression.

There is no denying the fact that ours is a patriarchal society in which women are not equally held in esteem of repatriation to some extent, hence, the women, without bearing “whys and nos”, conform to the restricted social conventions and the imposed atmospheric framework of society. Women, epically, in some backward areas are disproportionately confronted with numerous restraints on getting primary or high-level education, for them, is none other than one possible option, mere stay home and do the domestic chores!

Namely, there are a number of restraints on female-education, primarily, they include domestic and cultural constraints, lack of institutions, early marriages and/or social criticism along with the vitriol against gender discrimination and even though the abnormal as well as changing conditions of our county, predominantly, contribute to psychological disturbances, especially, when it comes to the female sensitivities.

Despite the other factors, there is a huge destitution of support from their elders which is perpetually of the essence in being obliged to take the primary responsibility of their education. Most substantially, support from home for a female individual holds a prominent role in their educational career which is either totally or partially lacking. In actuality, system of educating females needs positive attention of their family members and the government to help strengthen the female education sector, which, currently, is thrown into oblivion and holds a little importance in our so-called milieux.

However, they, under such compulsions, are unable to dice with death to gain access to the provision of education either private or governmental and hence, with no further dubiety, directly comes the reason why our country is getting hampered in terms of educational development. As these lines are written comes another hindrance; in a manner of speaking, one thing is always obstructing the female-education-reform is the regressive irrationality of the point-of-views of our old mindsets with reference to education of any type or manner. Consequently, we don’t come to hold with some of or all of the modern theories on education.

According to the constitution, it is the state’s responsibility to provide free primary education, so did the government launch a nationwide initiative under the statutes of constitution in 1998 with the aim of eradicating illiteracy and providing a basic education to all children. Interestingly, that approach only bore some fruitful results within the metropolitan areas of the state.

But when we have a look at the current picture painted by the reality, reveals the story of the presence of rather some dilapidated not well-regulated governmental institutions either constructed for males or females, therefore, the approach to ‘’eradicating illiteracy’’ in the country remains a failure inasmuch as the illiteracy rate is overtly quadrupling in most of the areas of Balochistan: The country’s largest province in terms of landmass.

Anyways, a personal & self-reliant initiative to realization is mostly needed for a qualitative transformation of our society. Like-wise, Every responsible individual has to concentrate on doing away with the illusionary illegalities in relation to female-education in the interest of formulating a rosy and bright female education sector in ever-nook-and-cranny. It is crucially important to pay more heed on female education system than the male, because “Educating a male means merely educating an individual, but educating a female means educating a potential family”.

“Humanity’’ a rare dream

By Shahdad Mumtaz

BCRousseau says, “Man was born free but that is enchained everywhere”.

The idea of Rousseau is surely worthy-considering and that is a fact that all human beings are born free but as soon as they become the very part of the oppressed system of world, they got enslaved in every aspect of life.

The chain of religion, nationalism, sectarianism, racism and others are highly strong that they do not let the chain of humanity to be strong. If the chain of religion is weak somehow, then the vacant space is filled with the conservative form of nationalism. Suppose, the chain of sectarianism has got no place in a society, then obviously the society is embedded with the chain of racism. These imposed ideas are not something new rather historical facts which you and everybody ought to accept. No man, nation, state, society or a country is free at all from these but heartening point is that all men, states, nations and societies are very much far away to humanity. We have been biting by the poisonous snake of inhumanity.

Everybody gets the education for degree, but nobody goes for getting the education of humanity. We are educated to get jobs but are never educated to be well human being and embrace humanity. Everyone feels proud to identify one self’s nation, religion, sect, race or caste but no one finds his/her identity in humanity. Embracing the identification of humanity will be a great source of weakening the century-old chains of every inhuman act, war and instability sources.

The slogan of humanity has been chanted long ago and still there are many who are chanting the same sloganrespect for humanity merely beating to line. But can humanity be released or achieved by chanting slogans? By chanting slogan no one will get the stolen shoes, the humanity is beyond thoughts. Many questions disturb the mind that what are the obstacles in the way of humanity, why the man has failed to taste the freedom of humanity and why the human beings themselves are deprived of humanity?

Nothing can get changed and nothing can be achieved through verbal points. A thing can get changed the time when we have the complete knowledge and information about that. The case is that without finding the historical facts, knowing about the acts which have deprived us of humanity, we want that we should get humanity. With empty hands and a dismal mind the humanity will not be more than a dream. One ought to think that what were the situations and powers have snatched humanity from human being and in current circumstances application humanity possible in lives?

Paulo Frere says that the only social and moral responsibility of the man is the struggle for completion of humanity. It discourages to know that all have run-away from this humanitarian and moral responsibility. The humanity is for the welfare of every individual but still the human beings are deprived of it.

The misuse of power always leads the society towards the inhuman acts and ever keeps the society distant from the lovable-shadow of humanity. The deprivation of humanity exposes to both classes; one who has deprived the man of humanity and has snatched humanity, means the oppressor and the second who is deprived of humanity is the ‘oppressed’. Actually, both classes; the oppressor and the oppressed are deprived of humanity but strangeness from humanitarian speculation has divided the human being into various sections. Similarly, the both are born free but after birth one becomes oppressor and the second got oppressed. In spite of free birth their status differs into oppressor and oppressed.

The reason behind this tragic is that oppressors by its power but disregarding personalities and entities, do not consider at all the second man human being rather discriminated in individual, nation, state or society with inhuman terms. The truth is this they (oppressors) always incepted violence, and ever have committed evil deeds inhuman way against oppressed class by their brutal acts usage. Oppressed class has never been in power, so how could they go to violence, first?

The reactionary act of oppressed is natural and the ultimate outcome of the brutal acts by oppressor which give birth to insurgency and uprising by oppressed. And considerable point is that the violence of oppressor (ruling class) is the major obstacle in the completion of humanity. On the other hand the reactionary insurgency and uprising by oppressed is always only for thrive of humanity, and their struggle mean is up the value of humanity. That is the thirst of humanity that the oppressed class struggle for what. But it doesn’t mean that the oppressed class in their reactionary insurgency perpetrates like oppressor and kickoff the new series of brutal deeds which never will be endorsed as struggle for humanity. In such case only beats will be changed; the oppressor in place of oppressed, and in same manner oppressed will be shifted in beat of opposition. So it will be the same queen with two different pictures.

The first priority of the struggle of oppressed should be to gain humanity and spread it among the others. Because the oppressor is also deprived of humanity as the oppressed is. If the oppressors were not deprived of humanity, they would never deny it to others. They do not have the sense of humanity, for them this sense and the purpose of life is to be the master of more and more commodities even for that they can destroy civilization (Aztec civilization is the example), can invade states or other nations.

The sanguine way is the oppressor to make free the oppressed and it is inevitable to merge the both classes in sake of humanity which confers love, prosperity and beauty to lives of mankind. It is enunciated that develop of mentioned sense is result of human deeds, hence if human do optimistically, so inversely the outcome can be gained in shape of humanity, love, aesthetic and so on.

The problems, which are being faced by today’s world, are due to inhumanity. If there was humanity; consequently, no man would have killed to other by discrimination of religion, nation, race and caste. In a classless society, the man is judged by the humanity, not by the complexion, nationality and religion. Instead of the nationality and the religion criterion, the person should be preferred by humanity. Humanity can only thrash the walls of hatred and blossom to nursery of love and humanity, where every human being will be under the same comforted shadow of the tree. Humanity can build the bridge of unity. It can only give a new hope and every individual’s desires and dreams towards prosperity. Let’s start making the world by blossoming nursery of humanity by our own acts.


By Qudrat Mehr Baloch from Kharan

Life in Pakistan is full of perils and accidents; the suffocating environment of Pakistan makes one mentally agonized and troublesome. Furthermore, Pakistan is one of the most human rights devastating country in the world. The dwellers of Pakistan are thoughtless and helpless. They have no option to fallow, because every moment of life, they are facing tear-jerking situations in Pakistan. Actually, life is invaluable gift of devine. Everyone, who is living on the face of earth, is desirous of peace and shelter. Everyone has the privileges to dwell in a peaceful atmosphare, but in Pakistan life seems contemptible, no one feels safe and sound.

In the same way, corruption, which is one of the devastative and perilous thing, but it, has now become the vigorous part of the country. Everywhere, in Pakistan, it is conjointly going on, even it has become the part of public service commission, which was the hope of the nation, people would get jobs through it, but now corruption has been germinated in integral country, from top to bottom all departments are involved. Stretching it further, it is the grave problem of country, everyone comes in authority with his greedy belly, and loots the country, but no one is there to take step against him. Whatever, Mr. Jinnah imagined, but all in vain. He dreamed to have free corrupt country, but as he left this mortal world, his dream was also considered the tremendous waste of time.

Similarly, it also blushes to say that incapable leaders of Pakistan are the extra burden on the shoulder of poor people, even they do not have dare to come on the stage, and still they are the leaders, as once Rehman malik was told to recite the Surah-e-Ikhlas, and he commenced recitation, meanwhile he got stuck. Because they are ineligible to come on stage. Even most of them are ill- knowledged. They are just jeck of all trades but master of none.

On the other hand, unemployment, which is one of the grave problems for Pakistan, day by day increasing. Innumerable people are deprived of the blessings of job. Even they have no bread earners in their houses, and they are compelled to scrounge in front of Masjids. Because they have no any choice, even some of them are dying in state of hunger, some of them are surviving, but under the vicious circle of poverty.

Additionally, it is an irritating problem for Pakistan, which is insurmountable. Although, Pakistan is under developing country, she has no check and balance over this burning issue. In the same way, law and order situation is also one of the burning issue of Pakistan which is mentally torturing the nation. Day time target killing, which shows that there is no any value of law. People are being killed brutally, But there is no law to forbid them. Street crimes are common things, people are being abducted and looted, but no body is there to ask. In addition, the deteriorated situation of  Pakistan is now insufferable nuisance for builders  of the nation. Abduction is also one of intolerable  crime, many waves of voice are being raised to stop the deplorable crimes, which have been now the part of territory. Besides that, people are also facing bewilderments, everyday there is call of strike, which makes the life of citizens perplex, because many shopkeepers are dependent on their shops. They feed their children with the help of shops. If shops remain closed for couple of days then how can they feed their children? It is thinking point, but there is no body who feels poignant for the  nation, because pain can be judged, when one is himself suffering from it, while nation is enduring from it then how the stake holders

 Can realize pain of nation, because they are luxuriating, but here nation is dying from hunger.

Similarly, drown attacks and explosions are common in Pakistan, as in Waziristan, many people are dying on the spot due to drown attacks.

Every part of Pakistan is burning; even no one is safe in his cottage. Pakistani nation is living in the surrounding of terror. If a child goes out of his house, then his parents get plaintive. Whether their piece of heart will come back to home or not. As, few months before a very heart-rending disaster explosion took place near to Degree college Quetta, many people washed their hands from their precious lives, who were selling their commodities, several venders and pedestrian got severely injury, even some of them had gone paralyzed. Many of them were throbbing with pain. This disastrous accident took place in the day of summer, before this people were comatous about this, if they knew a bomblast take place, they even would not go there. Undoubtedly, in Pakistan life has no value, here life is treated as if it had been donkey, even with donkey no one behaves like that.

Moreover, today inflation is touching the sky in Pakistan, day by day the rate of commodities are  increasing, the fluctuation in prices are making  the people sick of their lives, people are being mentally tortured, they are prodigalizing the major share of their amount in purchasing commodities. Besides that, the educational expenditure is also one of the major problem of their children. They have no option, that how to surmount this problem, but in this case government is fail to subsidize the nation and reinvigorate them from this bewilderment.

On the other hand, the tear-jerking and heart-breaking situation of Balochistan is lucid to everyone, before it was the peace of paradise, but now it looks like a grave-yard. The deteriorated situation of Balochistan compels the people to shed. Besides that, the siblings of missing persons are marching towards Islamabad, for the soon recovery of their beloveds. The mothers of missing persons have also participated in this race, even they have no care of their lives and health .If one glimpses over their long march, where mothers are dragging their feet, throbbing with pain, then one’s heart gets burst to see their moaning and groaning for their beloved sons. As, our beloved prophet (PBUH) said that” verily the paradise lies under the feet of mothers” on the other place also beloved prophet (PBUH) said one of the symbols of resurrection, that when” mothers will be degraded then be ready for doomsday”. Undoubtedly, today one can see the situation that how they are being degraded for their beloveds, even they are extending their laps, but still they are disappointed.

Life in Pakistan is full of  danger, no one can survive here, because the suffocating environment of Pakistan is one of the grave problem for the nation, as on the basis of above discussion, it can be said that Pakistan is not sheltered and peaceful country for the builders of the  nation.

Master Dad: a living lore…..

By Aziz Ejaz

The fetching mirror of the world’s literature amazingly let the readers of it to come across the fabled names had 1904015_626135124125429_927542427_ndedicated their all glinting potentialities and ingenuities for a specific determination in the field of fiction that allows anyone be wrapped up by the rhymes, literally writings, limericks and the short stories that the renowned personalities used to write in their lifetimes. Literature is not only destined to a nation however, all nations inhabit in the world have a sort of expression of their daytimes happenings in every sphere of lifecycle whether that is a convolution, enchantment or any other form of unconventionalities that often occur in the norms of normalcy.

The word Literature actually derives from a Latin word litterae (plural) letter), is the art of written work. The word literature literally means: “things made from letters”. Literature is commonly classified as having two major forms ‘’fiction and non-fiction’’ and two major techniques which we called poetry and prose. Prose is Literary a medium distinguished from poetry especially by its greater irregularity and variety of rhythm and its closer communication to the patterns of everyday speech of us. Though it is readily distinguishable from poetry in that it does not treat a line as a formal unit, the significant differences between prose and poetry are of tone, pace, and sometimes subject matter at all.

But poetry defines as like, which is a word derived from the Greek ‘’Poiesis’’ meaning a “making”, is a form of literary art which uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, (is the study of the inherent pleasantness (euphony) or unpleasantness (cacophony) of the sound of certain words, phrases, and sentences) sound symbolism, and meter(is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse or lines in verse)—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.

The primogenital literatures used to provide some factual information about the art of writing and non-fiction, which is the fundamental step to be taken in minds while thinking to go through ingenuities that how the literatures of various nations came into being. Same like other literatures the Balochi literature is one from them in which we can get the shape and art of inventiveness. In this literature we can come across to the names that toiled for it and struggled in its every field such as short stories, novel writings, literarily works like criticism etc. and poetry.

Master Dad, commonly we call him A.R Dad, (Abdul Razzique Dad) is a living legend of Balochi literature that at all is a complete book containing the aesthetic view of Balochi literature. Like other devoted scholars and writers of Balochi literature among who the most reverend names come are, Syed Zahoor Shah Hashami, Kareem Dashti, Atta Shad, Murad Sahar, Ghani Pervaz including Master Dad who has contributed enthusiastically with a transparent zeal and contributing as well. We cannot deprive those names who served as the building blocks of structure. Master Dad born in Gawadar in 1972, this soil has given to birth many legendary playwrights and rhymester, who had earned a glimpse in the history of Balochi literature and toiled a lot for the aesthetical structure of literature. Master Dad completed his primary education in Gawadar and intermediate from Degree College turbat. Dad used to be one of the students of the great intellectual and literally writer ‘’Ghani Pervaz’’, who has almost written about the Balochi literature in a great extent, whether that is fiction or non-fiction as he embodies the entire visual of literature by seeing thoroughly his ingenuities seem the fundamental entities had given a prodigious begging to the modern prose writing. Mr. Dad’s sincerity that I have observed as being a student of him during my Master education is of utmost concerned when we get a peep towards his literally devotions in fiction or non-fiction respectively. Balochi literature is one of the oldest among highly rich literatures destined in south Asian countries.

 A.R Dad, done his Bachelor of arts and Master of arts in Balochi literature from the university of Balochistan and currently serving as a teacher in Balochi department in university of Balochistan. He is an author, who focuses on the styles of expressions and toils to represents whatever he creates with a warmth and humour repercussions of the society.

If we call him a complete dramatist, novelist, scriptwriter, interviewer and biographer, than we will not be beating about the bushes as he embodies all that qualities rarely in an astonishing flair.

As for as his commitments are concerned, he spectacles an outstanding devotion towards Balochi literature, and emphasizes what are the pre-requisites needed to be applied for a greater accomplishment In a section which readers and the observers contemplate one of the nicely building blocks in enhancement of the literature, Balochi literature has not empowered a gigantic achievement in all its norms which Dad tries to improve by his fetching ingenuities.

In early periods of his life, he was found a student who was fond of literary backgrounds as he was used to write rhymes and letters to different periodicals get publish from various places. By the passage of time his interests gradually boosted up as he used to thoroughly read and observe the literatures which had been inscribed by the legendry personalities in the field of fiction and non-fiction.

970325_486747688064174_628420521_nDad is all a tragedian, who focuses on tragedy and attempts to clarify the complete shape of it in Balochi prose. His short stories enthusiastically contain what a society has around it and unusually represents what creativities are to be containing in it. In realistically in defining him we would not be having enough words. Because he has done a lot in this concern which needs a book to be written in service of him. He has written about each field of literature and his creativities destined the most influential books serving in a great extent. Worldwide literatures are in search of those splendid literatures that are considered the most attractive ones as they assist in acknowledgment of preeminent styles of writing such as how to go through the techniques while creativities nudge the mind to experience a short story, novelette or a novel. Dad tries the same form of technique and its implementation for a sparkling Balochi literature.

Dad is a faultfinder, he has observed the first ever book of criticism, ‘’Botika’’ written by Aristotle and translated it into Balochi.  ‘’Shargadarii, Balochi Shargadarii, is a book compiled or written by him which contains the mottos and individuals observations of international authors in the field of criticism, which is a subject in literature use to find out the faults and make sure the transparency of it keeping the boundaries of limitations in utmost concerns and the thoughts of Baloch authors who toiled first in it to bestow the Balochi literature a perpetual gift. In the same he unsympathetically talks about the above mentioned writers and their thoughts and in conclusions tries to comment on what to be persuaded in accomplishment of a triumph in the field of criticism.

He engraves very heart stirring stories and translucent those in a way that attracts anyone to start thinking ahead what will be the consequences that a story prescribing, he tries to create suspense in his factually ingenuities and often let the readers for further thinking which is known as one of the good assets of a faithful writer. When we get the taste of Balochi literature than we efficaciously come across to many lustrous names such as the very early devoted personalities like Khair Mohammad Nadvi, Syed Zahoor Shah Hashami, Kareem Dashti and many more, who have gleaming glimpses in the history by the utterly efforts that had earned for them such emblematic names. Master Dad’s devotions if get a least glance then it would be a transparent negligent as he efforts for its each subject progress and he has  written many books that undoubtedly be helping the strugglers feel easiness while they go through for a specific task be accomplished.

His books that published are,

 ‘’Dareeg’e Pach Beth’’ ‘’Taharaga’e Wahda’’ ‘’Sheher’e Izm ‘’ ‘’Shaeri’e Safar’’ ‘’Gaap Rawan Kant’’ ‘’ Dila Balahh’en’’ ‘’Kisahi Labzaki’’ ‘’Labzanki Gaalband’’ ‘’Shargadree, Balochi Shargadree’’ ‘’Nyaed BaharGaah’’ and ‘’ Bia’e Labzanki’ ae Sara Gap Janain’’.

The books in procession of publications are,

 ‘’Labz, Sachesht, Manha’’, ‘’Labzanki Gaalband ’’, ‘’Nyaad-e-Bahargah’’, ‘’Komaaraan Bebe’’, ‘’Labzanki Gaalband’’, ‘’Paatantaaken Injeer’’ and ‘’Sangtaani Dewaan’’.

Still the sun emerges for more shines and Balochi literature needs more such efforts from Master Dad in every field of it to allow the readers be acknowledged very methodically. He is a researcher, can search about the vanished materials and compile to recuperate them which are almost on the verge of extinction in some extent.

Master dad’s thoughts connect with the taste of mud and he writes about it in a way that attracts the readers to get a glance at every field of the literature as he embodies itself the whole flavor of Balochi literature.  As being a poet and short story writer the entire imagination of his thoughts sink into it and such sort of loyalty to it is of with utmost concerns and is undoubtedly fantastical. He not only goes through the exactness of literally creativities however he attempts to show the glimpses of it through an opening that is to display the realities in a visual form.

The clarification of the words often declares many delusions and the same sort of ability master Dad has in its connection with the words and literature. Dad is the only person I have found to speak scrupulously and for betterment of the literature. Dad not only teaches or writes about the field of fiction such as the short story, novel and prose, he tries to draws the sketch of the entire Balochi literature whither that is poetry and the very old prose inscribed by the beginners.

Master Dad utterly feels the anguishes of human and invokes them in his wordings to its audience accompanying catharsis or pleasure in the viewing flair of expression. His poetries which contain the most effectiveness form of realism are another chapter of his book which undoubtedly needs a detail observation, too.

He has the excellence how to express the feelings, by way of his natural flow of speech rather than rhythmic structure is, as well noticeable and eye-catching. In conclusion I would like to say he is alike the sun, whose literally glimpses in the field of fiction or non-fiction trying to attain a name that would eternally be lasting in the glinting pages and luminous history of Balochi literature.

Call of 21st century; education sector (private) requires major reforms

By Masood Gul Khetran, Loralai

Masoor KhetranA better base of education is elementary for a student on both levels; the primary and   secondary. A basal kid certainly gets to promote in upper levels with confidence in a kindergarten. When, we debate on quality education so we come to know that it is a natural truth that only a qualified staff can edify the generation. A skillful teaching crew only can deliver knowledge to the learners. This maxim here fixes that parents get child from heaven, but a teacher is that person who makes children to seek the goal in a greater scope.

An honest and diligent person deserves the position of being the spiritual guider of students. The teacher is liable to gloss the student in all aspects and give them mold to a constructive shape that as being the learners, able to play an exemplary role in society in future. Here the shallow efforts of government have caused the nastiest degeneration of quality education and the trend of lethargy among teachers that emerged, and this has undermined the entire sector. Now this trend has subsided into field practitioners deep; resultantly, teachers are considering the un-dutifulness as their legal right.

It is quite awkward that without knowing the nature of a student, the teachers often use to punish them not memorizing the lessons or completing the homework, which seems at all a brazen act.  Several teachers use foul words to torture the students mentally besides physical punishment.

It has been observed that teachers do not apply creative and teaching techniques but harshly have adopted educationsysteminpakistanmethod of torment which is nerve hyping for parents that how to induce the children for joining school, where teachers are naïve and pitiless. It is an arduous job to manage kinfolk’s economy in this inflation period, and besides providing quality education to the progenies for a bright future is also tensile. Hence, parents ought to monitor their children routine studying process and developments, because the improper attitude of teachers impact badly on students collectively; moreover, this will certainly make sterile the environment of entire class. Resultantly, the parent’s occasional interaction with teachers is mandatory for the melioration of education field in Balochistan with other modification and innovations.

It is cognizable that our educational system is not equipped with 21st century requisitions. It is outspoken that teachers are like soul of an educational institute, and they support the organizations as like the backbone upholds the entire human body. Similarly, the talented and proficient teachers can be guarantor of an outstanding educational institute.

Specifically, in private sector of education the majority of teacher is inexperienced and unskillful, excepting some, the most working in private school are the student of intermediate or they are waiting for result after being tested. These mentioned teachers are premature, so in this profession the person who can read the psyche of student and it has abundance of knowledge, therefore it can be a good teacher.

In private sector serving teachers are merely holding the degrees of F.A or matriculation, who are pampering educational Institutes and this sector, too. Teachers are the builder of a nation and if they are cognizant and have aptitude to transfer the knowledge to students smoothly, then no doubt a decent and educated nation will come up.

Generally, in our beloved country, mostly the affairs are being  dealt unconstitutionally and violation of the laws is a guilt, too  even than the competent authorities of concern department ought  to inspect or dispatch the supervising  teams to private  sector educational institutes and make accountable to unqualified or inadequate performing organizations, because  everyone knows  the collective  prosperity  of  nation  is  embedded  with the empowerment quality education.

The laws have been constituted for being practiced, neither for breaching. Education like sensitive department has utmost need of a check and balance system. The government is obliged to take some initiatives for the contentment of masses. The inscribed pieces truly mean is to arouse the sense of dutifulness among the discussed field practitioners for the sake of a civilized and educated upcoming generation, because the today’s students are the builders of nation.

Center does not fund for betterment of situations in Balochistan: Dr Malik Baloch

Bolan Voice Report

A provincial consultation conference held with title “Pakistan Vision 2025”, in Quetta. The federal minister for images (1)planning Ahsan Iqbal and the chief minister Balochistan Dr Malik Baloch were the prominent participant of conference.

Speaking to conference Dr Malik Baloch said that eradication of corruption and maintaining of peace in province are the top priority of his Balochistan government. They are getting inadequate funds in sector of development. Center had made commitment for provision of Rs. 45 billion, but they have received on 20 percent of mentioned amount. Dr Malik expostulated.

Further the chief minister Balochistan said that if funds are not released for Balochistan, thus situations in province will not improve, and given funds not be spent for development; thence, they are responsible for it. The federal government ought to give preference the Balochistan about construction of roads, and the approved quota of province pertaining employments in center must be implemented. Such initiatives will help them to reduce in problems of province.  Dr Malik Baloch demanded.

Some sizzling facts, about the human body

By Aurangzaib Baloch

The human body is an incredible complex and intricate system. As result it should not be any surprise that even body parts and functions we deal with every day having bizarre fact. Here some interesting facts about the human body mentioned.

* Nerve impulses from the brain travel as fast as 170m per hour.

* The brain operates on the same amount of power as 10 watt light ball.

* Our brain uses 20 percentage of the oxygen that enters our blood.

* The brain is more active at night than during the day.

* Scientist say that higher your IQ the more you dream.

* Neurons continue to grow through your life.

* Eighty percent of the brain is water.

* The fastest growing nail is on the middle finger.

* Facial hair grows faster than any other hair on the body.

* The brain itself can’t feel pain.

* The life Spain of a human hair is 3-7 years on average.

* The largest internal organ is the small intestine.

* Human hair is virtually indestructible.

* The human heart creates enough pressure.

* We get a new stomach lining every three to four days.

* The surface area of human lungs is equal to a tennis court.

* Women’s heart beat faster than men’s.

* The aorta is nearly the diameter of a garden hose.

* The adrenal glands change size through life.

* Women blink twice is roughly the size of a soft ball.

* The largest cell in the human body is the female egg and the smaller is

the male sperm.

* Our teeth start growing six months before we are born.

* Babies are born with blues eyes.

* About one third of the human race has 20-20 vision.

* Our nose can remember 500,000 different scents.

* Everyone has a unique smell, expect identical twins.

* Nails hairs don’t grow after we die.

* It takes seventeen muscles to smile.

* Babies are born with 300 bones, but by adulthood the number is reduced

to 206.

* The strongest muscle in the human body is the tongue.

* We are about 1cm taller in the morning than evening.

* Scientists have counted over 500 different liver functions.

* We could remain a large part of our internal organs and survive.

* Sneeze regularly exceeds 100mph.

* Feet’s have 500,000 sweat glands a day.

* During our life, we produce enough saliva.

*Ear wax production is necessary for good ear health.

Azat the Great

By Akram Jamaldini

Today my pen compels me to put a glance on a top notch and historical personality. Though my little brain does preview_azat_jamaldininot accumulate the words to depict him. As there is need of a psychological and philosophical knowledge to introspect such man of letter and conversant, the paramount figure who is always shining in the pages of history. The idol who has carved out a permanent place in the hearts of Baloch nation and remembered in sublime relics for his meritorious services. Such was the great poet, reformer, educationalist and benefactor Azat Jamaldini.

He was entirely honorable. Not a breath of suspicion marred his life. For his dedication and untiring efforts, he proved himself as “The ambassador of perseverance and benevolence”.

Azat in every way was a contrast to his predecessor of great feat. During his life time itself, he was able to get a long following. His versality was amazing and was known to his people as a poet, short story writer, philosopher, journalist, politician and nationalist.

Azat’s integrity of character was beyond reproach. As a think tank he had given guideline to the politician. He had attended their seminars and joined their rallies. His politics was based on the removal of superstition, prejudice and bigotry.

Likewise, it was his overmountedness and oversightedness that he poured a cogent drop of acquaintance with literature, language and culture.

As a poet he boost up the tone of consistent zeal among Balochs for achievement. His poem stress themes of patriotism, nationalism, anti-imperialism and revolution. By choosing the pen Azat, which means free, he was able to use this pen as a double sense, as a reference both to himself and to political, cultural and social freedom.

The first poem is both; masten tawar and ruzn is Qaul (pledge). This poem. The whole of which is transcribed and translated into Engish by Joseph Elfenbein, can be read as poets political agenda.

In addition, his book have been translated into Urdu, Persian Chinese, German and Russian.

We can also see him as a fervent and zealous revolutionary with a fully developed political program. He glorified Baloch and Balochistan.

He also develops great lyrical skills, which makes his poetry more complex and rich in images and allusion. He was also passionately devoted to the development of Balochi language, as mentioned above, he founded and edited the first Balochi magazine, Mahtak Balochi in June 1956.

Similarly in Gulf States there was no reports of any government sponsored language education or literary activities. Consequently, most Baloch writers and publishers were reluctant to offer any opinion on the issue of which dialect ought to constitute the basis of a standard literary language.

However, Azat made private efforts to standardize Balochi language. He wanted to unanimously agree all the writers on orthography. No doubt, his accomplishments are beyond comprehension.

Looking upon his services and achievements one should not be wrong to comment, that Azat devoted his entire head and mind to find the way by which the miraculous creativity of man shall not be dedicated to his death, but consecrated to his life. It was the determination and perseverance, that he stimulated Iranian Baloch and so, to put the accent on further social progress through the activities of common ones, he mobilize them through Zahidan radio station. He was first one to struggle both for eastern and western Baloch but alas, there he was arrested by Iranian agency and carried to Tehran by helicopter. There he languished in state dungeons. After few months he was deported from Iran, seeing both the doors to be closed for him, He adopted exile in Dubai. There he started his personal business and compiled books. Unfortunately, he lost his two books without published, this obviously a dreadful shock for him. This lost made his life miserable. Consequently, at the last stage of his life, he suffered from cancer. Resultantly, he left for good on September 5, 1981.

Baloch culture day

Every nation in every nook and cranny of the World, have their own culture and tradition. The recognition baloch culturesymbol of nation is traditional culturally. It is a fact that every nation has different cultures and traditions which is far different to one another in term of reflection of nature and reality.

Further, every nation has celebrates their culture day with great courage. Likewise, Balochistan which seems to be the largest province of Pakistan in term of land has its own culture and tradition. This is celebrated every year on 2nd March in Balochistan and Baloch celebrates their culture which is different to other cultures of nation. Such as Balochi dresses, jewelers, Balochi music and a lot of more. Especially, Balochi dresses are very attractive and symbol of Baloch pride honor .It is imperative to note that sewing needle work on the dresses of Baloch women distinguishes Balochi culture from other as well.  According to a religious scholar, Dr. Zakir Naik, he regarded the Balochi clothes of women are the best clothes worn by Baloch women. Because it covers the whole body and are the best ones in the world.

Moreover, Balochi embroidery is symbol of Balochi culture bestowed by the nature. But what displeases me the most is that a trend has been developed in connection with giving names which are baseless and uncivilized such as Muslim Hammali-a-Danag, Apsar-a-Salounk, Turbat-a-Banor makes no sense at all. Therefore, it is my request to be advisable to refrain from naming such names since Balochi image in international circle.

Finally, we must know about our culture and celebrating such days shows a nation’s identification and indicates how much union we are.

Shehzad Karim, Turbat

Saudi Arabia and Bahrain help with Israel on religious ground

Media Report

Israel revealed that Saudi Arabia and Bahrain help with its secret institutes on religious ground. A news agency tells that Israeli Army at its website released a statement, in that it is mentioned that Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates, Afghanistan and Azerbaijan also cooperate effectively with MOOSAD.

Further in statement mentioned that Bahrain provides intelligence information to Israeli agency MOOSAD regarding Iran and Palestine. Apart from this it is informed through report that Saudi Arabia has been giving inclusive information to MOOSAD about Iranian nuclear program, meanwhile Azerbaijan also has been doing same job for them.

Man is not born free!

By Agha Jahanzaib Baloch

Janzib balochIf we observe that when a child is born actually he is bounded in chains of relations wither he is born as some ones son and some ones brother then he belongs to particular religion or a tribe, nationality and sect all these factors matter during its evolution in the universe. All the relations and connections and chains though not realized by him, as he is too little to understand them so an individual cannot be free from the very beginning of his life till the termination. It can be assumed that it is not possible for an individual to be free; he is connected through various relations with others. It is possible to elaborate the world free and freedom, because the word free and freedom is taken as being able to do what an individual wants and being able to remain independent of anyone or anything else, then such a freedom cannot exist in this world because man is born in this world and he is bounded to be depended on sit.

 Man is bound to be ruled by different phenomenon and different systems that exists in the world, he needs to breathe in oxygen from some source for his existence in order to sustain his life he has to search food from different sources for his existence to carry on his life. Making mutual Corporation with other human beings, who have to be in relation with him if he wants to sustain in the universe because he is a social animal. However, the man is an mutual corporation with the universe as human breath out carbon dioxide and in result breath in oxygen from the environment as the released carbon dioxide is utilized by plant in our ecosystem also there is deep relation between plant and human being, because we are dependent on plant for food as well plant depend on us for carbon dioxide in exchange, so there is a mutual relation between us. However, there can be relative freedom an individual can be free to a certain extent.

 He can be free to choose amongst the choices set for him by different factors if he has not potential to choose man born freeeverything that he wishes that he wishes. The relative freedom is defined for an individual that he is free to express his views free to exercise his religion, free to exercise his culture, free to exercise politics and some other facts.

 One of the reasons that an individual is deeply   influenced by all these factors in the process of his nourishment. As the individual is highly depended on family and other institutions is conditioned through them; before he is old enough to make his own decision these are already certain beliefs, behavior thinking installed in him. While a person’s family religion defines, what religion an individual will believe in and practice. It is quite different to find a Muslim in a christen family; therefore, a person belonging to a family with a particular religion will not have freedom to choose any of the religion in the world. However, he would have certain relative freedom and would have to choose from certain behaviors’ and beliefs that are in the religion. He is brought up into same as the case with economic and financial backgrounds. A person belonging from a strong financial background will have strong desires to choose rather than a person belonging from a poor financial status. Suppose that a person who would not be able to buy anything he wants his choice will be highly dependent on his budget. The concept of this sort of relative freedom can be best understood through a nice example:

For example a father takes his son to a shop to buy him a bicycle, now he would choose any of the bicycles according to the financial status of his father. Therefore, he asks his son to choose from amongst cycles that are rated to certain amount; let’s say, PKR 3000, now the son can choose any of the bicycles that are rated PKR 3000, but he cannot choose any bicycle that is rated above 3000; that is his relative freedom.

 Similarly, the freedom for an individual also depends on political system as well. An individual within a state is highly influenced   by the policies and practices that are promoted by the political system; these are certain kinds of political system; there are certain kinds of political system, wherein individual are given the rights to participate in the formation of the government; the example can be taken of a democratic system in such system, the individual cast their votes and elect their representatives who form Government on the other hand, in a political system like dictator ship there is no room for an individual to cast his vote in order to choose their elected leader from their desired party. Then these are certain other types of freedom that are highly dependent on the political system.

The freedom to raise finger against the policies of the Government and the individual is bounded not to express freely. It is said that a person’s freedom ends at the point from where another person nose starts, suggesting that when an individual freedom becomes disturbance for others, it doesn’t remain freedom. As man is born free but everywhere he is in chains and that is true to a certain extent, it is appropriate even to say that man is not born free to somehow, he is bounded to his relations. In short, absolute freedom is UN available and is dream can only be found in space.

Ukraine: A ground of stretch and strain for US-Russia

By Ahmed Khan

In 1918, the Socialism pragmatically got space on this planet by applying as state system in Russia, since than its1656416_10152244294090280_1278034291_n minus side means capitalism followers determined to eliminate this. As nature’s course, “Power to existence” phenomenon is working among the present epoch people, where polarized world isn’t consented to coexist, even not consented to embrace such system or principles which have duly bestowed relieve to human, mutually.

On one side, the Soviet States of Russia and in opposition European countries vanguard by America are engaged to seize all resources to their side and keep hegemony as politically on entire globe. Presently, the Russia and America got loggerheaded on Ukraine soil and this stretch and strain is in political shape, yet.

The state Ukraine is covering area of 233,062-sqm and making largest country within Europe, entirely. This state is situated in east Europe, bordering with Russia to the east and northeast, Belarus to the northwest, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest. The country Ukraine is home of 44.6 million people, 77.8% of whom are ethnic Ukrainians, with sizeable minorities of ethnic Russian 17% Belarusians and Romanians. Ukrainians is the official language of Ukraine; its alphabet is Cyrillic, Russian is also widely spoken. The dominant religion in the country is Eastern Orthodox Christianity, which has strongly influenced Ukrainian architecture, literature and music. (Wikipedia)

 During the World War-I many empires collapsed; among them were the Russian and Austrian empires. The Russian revolution of 1917 ensued, and a Ukrainian national movement for self- determination reemerged, with heavy socialist and communist influence. Afterward, several Ukrainian states splinted but Soviet Ukraine (the Ukrainian People’s Republic) succeeded to consolidate former Russian Empire. The UPR was inclined to Bolshevik thoughts. At the time, Poland infiltrated in Ukraine by some indigenous elements but failed to access Keiviate the main city, however, it was succeeded to seize an area in west, and soon after this the Ukraine was also recognized as part of Soviet Socialist in March, 1919.

 The Ukraine a founding state became member of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic or the Soviet Union in December, 1922. In September, 1939, during World War-II after a skirmish, the divided Ukraine got reunited which was a deceiving event in history of nations. The German army encirclement to a great number of Red- Army in the battle of Kiev, and killed many or made them captive. Although the majority of Ukrainian were fighting alongside the Red-Army, but some elements had created nationalistic organization to counter the Soviet Union and their main base was Galicia. At the same time, an armed nationalist organization apart from them fought alongside Nazi army. War brought devastation in Ukraine, where industry and other fields of production got slumped but Soviet Union supported adequately, about 20% of entire Soviet budget was allocated for rehabilitation of Ukraine which resulted 33.2% rose in workforce and industrial output grew on level of 2.2 times in that same period. In that epoch Soviet Union became leader in industrial production. The army-industry and research centers of Soviet Union were almost in Ukraine and this impacted great influence in Ukraine to elite. As a result, many member of soviet leadership came from Ukraine; the prominent figures, likes scientists, sporting players, educationalist and so on of Soviet Union had brought-up in Ukraine.

Red-Army-Title_WEBThe major nuclear installations of Soviet Union exist in Ukraine. The Chernobyl nuclear explosion incident took place in Ukraine which is known throughout the world due to the worst devastations. After the accident, a report prepared by the International Atomic Energy (IAEA) and World Health organization (WHO) attributed 56 direct deaths to the accident and estimated that there were almost 4000, extra cancer deaths.

On 16 January, 1990, the Ukraine got separated from Soviet Union and formed its parliament in 1991; the conservation of communist party attempted a coup to Mikhail Gorbachev and to restore communist party power. But attempt was failed which left Ukraine an independent state and this was also time of Soviet Union’s disintegration which resulted world into unipolar successively the by-polar.

During the Cold War, the capitalist bloc, especially America designed to besiege the Russia in various aspects; using religious fundamentalism with jihadist, democracy and likewise deceiving opts. After disintegration of Soviet Union, the Russia break-off to combat with America and let her allies to be preyed by capitalists. The America one by one removed those rulers who were supporter of forgone Soviet Union. The slain Suddam Hussaian, Murmar Kadafi death and presently Bashur-ul-Asad and others are in miseries due to close relations with Russia or former Soviet Union. The Russia helped America in destroying its allies, but even couldn’t get contented to her; even US displeasure is mounting with passage of time. The American involvement in Ukraine means to more tighten the grip on neck of Russia. By now Russia has no choice to step-back, otherwise will lose its more territory.

In east Ukraine, the Crimea’s population is Russian origin and they are deeply connected as politically, socially and culturally with Russia. This area people stood against American involvement, in that region Uncle-Sam mounted a fake political upheaval and ill-inspired mob that stormed on presidential palace including other government premises, they rammed and looted valuable as unleashed but west’s media is presenting these events as revolutionary which is totally blind picture of Ukraine’s situations. The Ukrainians led lives in the system of socialism and are not aware of ugly facade of capitalism which is tumbling and it got shape limping-duck which is America and facing financial crises consecutively. And longing for this failed system is great mistake of Ukrainians.

The America by media propagation and political influence wants inclusion of Ukraine in European Union which will distance this state to Russia in fields of trade which will cause deficits for her, too.

If the Russia lets Ukraine to enter in Europe Union, then it will face trade deficit and also will be deprived of a large quantity of wheat which is produced from this neighboring country to her. The defensive agreements of America with Ukraine will provide her a significant base in crux of Russia. The Ukraine is low valued for America because of long distance; but high valued for Russia as situated stone throwing distance and other affiliations are also knotted with her.

The present political hype in Ukraine is due to European Union that they want include Ukraine in their forum, and then in NATO, too; but Russia sturdily opposing it. But it is very time for Russia to maintain its supremacy or least to show its existence by defending the main parts. If Russia lets Ukraine to fell in hands of America and Europe, then she must be ready to detach its other parts, subsequently.

Western media is playing its role as if it is era of Cold War. By opening TV, radio, papers and mass media tools, it seem like sky has fallen on Ukraine. The Russian army entered in those areas where Russian origin people are inhibited, mainly Crimea. Those areas people were totally blacked-out by western media who were even now are protesting in favor of Russia and admonished the America for involvement in their country’s domestic affairs.

American state secretary Mr John Kerry has visited to Ukraine and sought diplomatic resolve of predicament but UKRAINE-UNREST-POLITICS-EU-RUSSIAcouldn’t reach to a point to get melt-down political pressure. The Ukrainian newly setup government by America and Europeans state, official has demanded that Russia should withdraw its army that is stationed in Ukraine but she defied and said that those are Crimean solider and if there’s people entreated to Russia for help, then it will not avert from sending more troops. The Western countries warned Russia for imposing sanctions on it; the European countries will also suffer themselves if they do so, reproached Mr Putin the Russian president.

Ukraine depends on gas transit revenue which is being supplied by Russia to Europe, and in case of sanctions on Russia will totally cut-off the Ukraine from this earning by transit and entire Europe may tumble in energy crises, because Russia provides a sufficient quantity of gas to those countries which will be stopped. If Russia will be expelled from G-8 or imposed sanction on it, certainly she will stop supply of her all resources, and she is capable to subsist on her piled natural resources. The Russia is country that has abundance of natural resources in world and this snowy-bear can survive without depending on any other state.

The objective circumstances substantiated that Russian retreating policy was not subtle. This had smoothed the way of America and its coalitions including NATO get dared to intimidate more and more to Russia and other defying states on the globe, which is utterly required to be break-off and initiating point is Ukraine. Now on the ground of Ukraine stretch and strain launched between American and Russia which is most essential for Red bear to win; otherwise, its entity will be menaced.


By Nadil Shah, Turbat

Capitalism is an economic system in which means of producing goods and services privately owned and support maximization of profits. In capitalism, whatever a person wants or do, also can produce more and more profits. A person can open private hospitals, schools and as well as industries in the country. Government and other local people do not have right to interfere in his or her legal earning process. Capitalist usually thinks about his or her profit, not for the people.  Adam smith was in 18th century’s economist believes that every things should belong to the people who produces them. Moreover, there are three characteristics of capitalism.

1. Private ownership

Capitalism is the economic system that usually emphasizes on private ownership. In capitalist economies, individuals and corporations own almost all the means of producing goods and services. Whatever a person earns or gets from his hard work that person should be allowed.

capitalism2. Consumer freedom

Consumer should be free in buying, selling, and producing goods and services. No one should force or restrict the consumers while they are selling or buying the goods and services in market.

3. Market competition and profit

The third hallmark of capitalism is that, the producers motive by the prospect of profits, compete to other consumers desired goods and services at lowest possible prices. E.g. a shopkeeper sells a mobile for 2000 rupees and the same mobile the other shopkeeper sells it for 1500 rupees.

Furthermore, there are two types of capitalism which emphasis and help a person to produce more and more productions.

 1. Laissez-faire capitalism

Laissez a Greek word which means “Alone” or “hand off” or “allow to do” It is an ancient concept of capitalism also a purely capitalist is called laissez-faire capitalism. In this type government does not interfere in the operation of economy at all. According to Adam Smith “Everyone benefits from laissez-faire”.

2. State welfare capitalism

Government just should be for protection and welfare of people. Government should be for protection means security, Schools for education and hospitals for health or treating the people.

What is star?

Stars are balls of gas that release energy produced by nuclear reactions within coerce.  Most stars are similar to images (3)sun, our nearest star, but because they are so far away they appear to us as mere points of light. Throughout the Galaxy, stars are forming evolving, and being destroyed. By studying a range of stars, astronomers have been able to build a picture of how stars change over time and hence understand more about the past and probable future of the sun.

Star formation

Stars from in huge clouds of gas and dust in space called nebulae, in a process that is continuing till today. The nebula shrinks under the inward pull of its own gravity, forming an embryonic star know as a protester. Eventually, the density and temperature of the gas at the protester’s center become high enough for nuclear reaction to begin. The object “switches on” to become a true star, generating its own heat and light. The star is then said to be on the main sequence. How long it stays like this and what happens Spitzer-Uncovers-Star-Hatcherynext depend on the star’s mass

Massive Star

A main-sequence star with a mass of more than about 10 sun experience a spectacular end. It swells into a red supergiant with cooling, expanding outer layers. Eventually its core collapses. Casing a huge explosion know as a supernovas. For a few weeks, the supernova shines as brightly as an entire galaxy. While the outer layers of the star are scattered in space, the fate of the core again depend on its mass. A core of relatively low mass will be crushed into a tiny, superdense neutron star. If the core has a mass of more than about two suns, its own gravity will squash it further, into a black hole.

Small star

A star of similar mass to the sun undergoes a quieter end than a massive star. It swells into a red giant, eventually losing its outer layers, which form a gas shell know as a planetary nebula[ because of its resemblance to the disk of a distant planet] The core is exposed as a hot white dwarf that cools and fades over billions of years. On ceasing to emit light, it will become a black dwarf. The least massive stars, red dwarfs with only about one-tenth the sun’s mass, can last for 100 billion years or more, whereas the most massive stars burn out after only about a million years. The sun, which formed about halfway through its life cycle.

Corporate power, women, and resistance in India today

Arundhati Roy interviewed by David Barsamian      Final Part

ARUNDHATI ROY is the celebrated author of The God of Small Things and winner of the Arundhati_Roy_657984aprestigious Booker Prize. The New York Times calls her, “India’s most impassioned critic of globalization and American influence.” She is the recipient of the Lannan Award for Cultural Freedom. Roy is the author of many books including The Checkbook & the Cruise Missile, Field Notes on Democracy: Listening to Grasshoppers, and Walking with the Comrades. She spoke to DAVID BARSAMIAN of Alternative Radio in Chicago on March 17, 2013.

So a lot of dirty games. Even this parliament attack was a dirty game. We don’t know who attacked parliament, but we know that a lot of lies were told and the wrong people were caught, the wrong man was hanged. And now just in the run-up to elections is the time when India, ironically, is the most violent, the most frightening, the most devious. You are really swimming in murky waters from now until when the elections happen. I don’t know what’s going to happen in 2014, when the American troops move out of Afghanistan, because that equation will also change between India and Pakistan.

RAM SINGH allegedly hanged himself in Tihar Jail. He was the driver of the bus in which the infamous rape and murder took place. That set off all kinds of questions about how could this happen in such a secure facility.

WELL, IT does seem very odd, because I’ve been in that jail and I know the size of the cell. If three people are sleeping, your bodies are touching each other. So if one chap is going to get up in the night, where did he find the rope? They say he unthreaded some rug or something and made the rope and hanged himself. It does seem that somebody wanted him dead.

Again, as I say, the nexus between the police and criminals is so tight, that even in this incident, when first of all, before they caught the girl and raped and killed her, they robbed somebody, the police didn’t follow up that. And after they threw the girl and her friend off the bus—I think she might have been already dead or nearly dead—the police just stood around and didn’t really do anything. They were fighting about which police station had the responsibility. They didn’t want to deal with it. So the nexus is very, very complete.

I just want to say one more thing about this issue. In India, when a girl is raped, because the stigma is so enormous, nobody is allowed to disclose her name. So all the various newspapers and media outlets, in their excitement, kept giving her different names. So someone called her Damini and somebody called her Nirbhaya, which means the fearless one, though I don’t know how they assumed that she was fearless. What a strange thing to do to a young girl who was murdered in that way.

But John Kerry recently wanted to honor her on Women’s Day or something in the United States because he seemed so moved by this story. And that I found so grotesque, because in the last few years the Americans have in terms of what they’ve done to the women of Iraq, what they’ve done to the women of Libya, driven whole countries, millions of women back into purdah, back into the most inequitable lives—women who were poets and writers and doctors and scientists being pushed back against their volition. It’s not that they were women who chose to be like that, but the situation that was created by these wars has pushed them back. And then you pick up a young girl who was raped and honor her, when you’re pushing millions of women backwards and putting the hands of the clock back for millions of women. You come and pick up this one case, which is completely unpolitical. What happened to her was a criminal act. What happens to the women of Libya and the women of Iraq and the women of Afghanistan is political. You’re not committing a criminal act on one person but a criminal act on countries of women.

IT’S EASY to be virtuous about the Delhi rape and murder case as opposed to drone attacks on Pakistan.

YES, IT’S very easy. I remember I was in Sharjah when President Obama won his second term. He came up on stage with his wife and his daughters and was talking about whether they should or should not have another dog. And a man from that bombed area of Pakistan was quoted in the media saying, “I’ve lost my wife and my children and my entire family in a drone attack. So to see the appearance of Obama and his family in this way, what am I supposed to think?”

PEOPLE ALWAYS ask me, ask Arundhati when is she going to write another novel? You did start on one a few years ago. How is that progressing?

RIGHT NOW that’s what I am fully engaged in. It’s difficult to know how long it will take, but I feel as though—whatever I’ve written about and gone through and looked at in these last years, to me now there is no direct way of expressing what I’m thinking and feeling. I need the subversion of fiction, I need the truth of fiction.

CAN YOU hint at what the topics are, what you’re writing about?

TO ME, novels are never about topics. Novels are about the—I won’t even say the human condition, because that would be small. I think novels should be about everything, in a way. It’s not just about some subject, because that’s what I’ve done with my nonfiction writing. But fiction has something so delicate and so beautiful about it. It isn’t topic-driven.

YOUR POLITICAL essays are characterized by a focused rage and crisp writing. Do you have any models who have inspired you?

THERE ARE so many writers that I admire, whether it’s Galeano or Berger or older writers as well. Nowadays I’m reading The Iliad. And I find it’s so absorbing. To me, what is beautiful and real about writing eventually is, does it stand the test of time. Because all of us can easily believe that what’s happening to us now has never happened before and it’s unique. But it is and it isn’t. Especially now, I think India is becoming very much like the United States, so self-absorbed, and the Indian middle class more and more arrogant, more and more insular. To me, it’s very, very important to be able to write something which is true to the place but which also doesn’t recognize those boundaries, which also resonates in the hearts and in the minds of people who are experiencing similar terrors, similar loves, similar fears, similar but not the same. How do you join people up with that? To me, people like Eduardo Galeano and John Berger do that.

But the art of writing is one that’s so artless in some ways, and yet it’s something that takes up a lot of my waking hours. How do I communicate this or how do I explain this? Not to someone in particular. Even the rage, it comes from love. It comes from believing that somebody should know or somebody wants to know what this is about. I have said in the past that there’s not such a great difference between fiction and nonfiction. But there is. When I’m writing now, I know that there is. And the play that you allow yourself in fiction is completely different. You don’t have to be crisp and to the point and focused. You mustn’t be. You must play. (The End)

Title December 2013

title for Bolg

“Nelson Mandela” a preeminent name

By Aziz Ejaz

In world history, there have born some legendary personalities who had devoted their entire life’s luxuries imagesmoments for a specific purpose for the entire humanity who after their life occasionally remember them with fanaticism. Nelson Mandela, who was called by his clan Madiba, was one of the enlightened personalities whose gallantry achievements netted for him a name of world peace icon.

Nelson Mandela was born in a small village in Eastern Cape in South Africa in 1918, whose birth name was Rolihlahla Dalibhunga.  The tumultuous life of Madiba’s family gave birth to a man who moved heaven and earth to eradicate the base cause of radicalism which was undoubtedly creating an environment of blemish and catastrophe for the black inhabitants of South Africa.

After the passage of time Madiba got enrollment in a school, there a teacher used to call him Nelson. Rolihlahla Dalibhunga father kicked the bucket owing to lung diseases when he was 9 years old. Nelson’s father was destined to be a chief of his clan, served as a counselor to tribal chief for several years. Nelson’s family was living in huts and occasionally ate a local harvest of maize, sorghum, pumpkin and beans, at the times when his father lost the title of chief over a dispute with local colonial magistrate, which compelled Mandela’s father to move in a small village.

Nelson Mandela was sprinkled in the Methodist church and he became the first in his family to attend school. His father’s death caused his to change dramatically. Mandela in his early age used to take classes in a one-room school next to the palace, there in his hometown studying English, Xhosa, history and geography. It was the time Mandela’s spirits showed a great interest in African history. Mandela’s courageous fanaticism towards its race and their rights to be highlighted internationally, eventually gotten fame and latter it allowed the black race managed to struggle against apartheid regime.

It appeared from the elders that how the African people used to live in relative peace until the coming of the white people. But after the entrance of white men in Africa they shattered the environment of peace. However black men shared their land, air and water with whites but white men took all of these for themselves.

In his early ages, he used to participate in the traditional and other curriculum that relate to the historical things and used to take part in ceremony that represented their custom and in this time their land was under the strong claws of white men colonial rule. Mandela wanted to develop a thought which to be providing authentic information that how his race has been deprived of the fundamentals rights.

Later on, he was enrolled at the university college of Fort Hare in 1939 and it was the only residential institute in south Africa for the white men, during his study times Mandela used to focus on the required courses and on Roman Dutch law to prepare for a career in civil service as an interpreter or clerk which was a best profession for black at that time to be obtained.

As he was working as a clerk in a church, he resigned   from his passion at the time when a majority of students voted to boycott unless their demands were met. At was the 2nd year of Mandela at university Fort when he was elected as the student Representative of the council. Students dissatisfied with the supplement of food and power and latter this was the reason that emerged as boycott and resignation of Mandela because he was align with the student majority and the university’s Dr. Kerr who was one of the responsible persons of institute, expelled Mandela for the rest of years and gave him an ultimatum that he could return to school if he agreed to serve on the clauses. When he reached at home his elders seemed furious telling him go back to school and have to recant.

From here Mandela ran away from home. He settled in Johannesburg, where he worked a variety of jobs, including as a guard and a clerk, while completing his bachelor’s degree via correspondence course. He then enrolled at the University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg to study law. After joining African National Congress in 1942, Mandela seemed actively involved in the anti-apartheid movement.   Within  the ANC, a small group of young Africans joined together and started calling themselves the African national congress youth league. Their goal was to transform awareness among the public who had no voice under the current regime. This was later accepted in 1949, and declared their goals and ways of protesting that contain civil disobedience, strike and non-cooperation, with policy goals of full citizenship, redistribution of land, trade union rights, and free compulsory education for all children, is legal and adoptable.

Anti-apartheid movement against South Africa whose racist based policies were furious compelled the black men to rise a voice. Mandela for about 20 years directed peaceful, nonviolent acts of defiance including the 1952 defiance campaign and the 1955 Congress of the people.

In 1956, Mandela and 150 others were arrested and charged with treason for their political advocacy and they eventually acquitted and from this ANC were being challenged by Africanists, a new breed of black activist who believed that the pacifist method  (a method in which someone thinks wars are wrong and refuses to use violence) of the ANC was ineffective. Africanists soon broke away to form the Pan-Africanist Congress, which negatively affected the ANC.

In june1961, Mandela, who was formerly committed to nonviolent protest, began to argue for setting up an armed struggle which was than considered the only way to achieve change. In 1960 ANC was banned and he subsequently co-founded Umkhonto We Sizwe, also known as MK, an armed offshoot of the ANC dedicated to sabotage and Guerilla war tactics to end apartheid.

By the end of 1961, Mandela with his companions arrested after orchestrated a three-day national workers strike, and he was sentenced to five years in prison in 1963. Mandela was brought to stand trial with them for planning to overthrow the apartheid regime by violence. On June 12, 1964, he and 10 others ANC leaders were sentenced to life imprisonment for political offenses, including others unlawful activities across apartheid ruling country.

Nelson Mandela was incarcerated on Robben island prison for 18 of his 27 years in prison from 1964 to 1982, thereafter, he was at Pollsmoor prison during jail times, and he was facing tuberculosis and as a black political prisoner received the lowest level of treatment from prison workers. He grew his reputation steadily and eventually became a potent symbol of resistance against the regime, was fuelling the distinguishing factors of discrimination and radicalism across the country.

In 1993 Mandela along with de Klerk were Jointly awarded the Noble prize for their pivotal work toward dismantling apartheid, de klerk was the president of ACN at that time. Mandela after 27 years in prison, became the first black man president of South Africa in May 10, 1994, at the age of 77. He ruled from 1994 until June 1999 and he used to work to bring about the transition from minority rule and apartheid to black majority rule. Mandela’s enthusiasm in bringing race equality, diminishing of discrimination and radicalism is the most influential one which won a great emblem of peace in the world.

In addition to advocating for peace and equality, he remained committed to fight against AIDS that killed his son, Makgatho in 2005. In his later years, Mandela was suffering from a lung infection which let him be hospitalized in Johannesburg from 2011 to 2012. Later on, Mandela was hospitalized many times by the same infection till the end of his life and on December, 5, 2013 at the age of 95, the great icon of Peace Nelson Mandela died at his home in Johannesburg, South Africa.

Mandela was married three times; firstly with Evelyn Ntoke Mase (1944-1957), having four Children, Winnie Madikizela in 1958, having two daughters, after splitting in 1996, and two years later Mandela married Graca Machel, with whom he remained until his death.


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