Author Archives: bolanvoice
There is no denying the fact that water means life because without water life is not possible in this world. The life of all living things; such as human beings, animals, insects and plants etcetera, totally depends on water.
By Durdana Ibrahim, Turbat
Water is important to the mechanics of the human body. The body cannot work without it, just as a car cannot run without gas and oil. In fact, all the cell and organ functions that make up our entire anatomy and physiology depend on water for their functioning. Water makes up more than two thirds of human body weight, and without water, we would die in a few days. The human brain is made up of 95% water; blood is 82% and lungs 90%. A mere 2% drop in our body’s water supply can trigger signs of dehydration: fuzzy short-term memory, trouble with basic math, and difficulty focusing on smaller print, such as a computer screen.
Water serves as a lubricant in digestion and almost all other body processes. The water in our saliva helps facilitate chewing and swallowing, ensuring that food will slide easily downs the esophagus. Water also lubricates our joints and cartilages and allows them to (pardon the pun) move more fluidly. When dehydrated, the body rations water away from the joints. Less lubrication equals greater friction and that can cause joint, knee and back pain potentially leading to injuries and arthritis. Even our eyeballs need plenty of lubrication to work well and remain healthy.
To see the importance of water, we need to use it in a very good so that can save it from its wastage. As we see the availability of water on this earth, about 71 percent of the Earth’s surface is water-covered, and the oceans hold about 96.5 percent of all Earth’s water; but surely all the water is not usable for the human beings. 97.5% of all water on Earth is salt water, leaving only 2.5% as fresh water nearly 70% of that fresh water is frozen in the icecaps of Antarctica and Greenland; most of the remainder is present as soil moisture, or lies in deep underground aquifers as groundwater not accessible to human use.
1% of the world’s fresh water (~0.007% of all water on earth) is accessible for direct human uses. This is the water found in lakes, rivers, reservoirs and those underground sources that are shallow enough to be tapped at an affordable cost. Only this amount is regularly renewed by rain and snowfall, and is therefore available on a sustainable basis.
No doubt, we are not using the water in a good way. On one hand, we are making the water of rivers and other resources dirty by throwing dust and garbage; on the other hand, we use water uselessly. The same water we drink which is full of germs. As a result we are getting or falling a victim to a lot of diseases. By drinking unclean contaminated water we are playing with our health. We use water at our homes for different purposes; such as, drinking, washing and cleaning, but mostly it is seen that we drop ample water which is not to be done by all manner of means.
We need to save water not just for ourselves but for our coming generations as well because if we save water today, by this water we can save a lot of coming generations. So, it is my humble request to everybody living on this earth to save water since by doing so we can save water not just for human beings but also for the other creatures of the world as well. Let’s pledge today that we will not let water be wasted so that we can maintain the beauty of the world.
By Ahmed Khan
Recently, a statement of Dr Malik Baloch, the chief minister Balochistan appeared in media, claiming that he takes guarantee that his government has abolished the series of throwing mutilated bodies of Baloch political workers, in entire Balochistan. Consequently, in Balochistan, no protest is being witnessed against the finding of mutilated bodies, which was on high before and in early days of his provincial government.
It is fact that when Baloch leader or workers’ bodies were found, so cities and town were got shut and still. The roads and highways were blocked by Baloch youth specifically and commonly by masses. World would witness their protest whether they would not take action against it in the pursuance of their interests.
Baloch Pro-independent organizations called Baloch masses for struggle, and in response people Baloch also thronged-out on roads in order to seek a destination in the guidance of discussed parities. Unfortunately, the Pro-Independent parties failed to keep adhered the masses with them, and forge them into kiln of ideology.
Pro-independent parties were obliged to educate masses and mold them into pure ideological nation, and then they wouldn’t avert any type of sacrifice for motherland and would not compromise on the interests of upcoming generations at any cost.
A Baloch intellectual on initial stage of current uprising said, “Honesty is key to success and if these parties with their workers are genuine, will win, and if they are fake will disappear after a period.” This is the sharp time to prove the mentioned statement that young Baloch intellectual foretold. The dissection of pro-independent parties is indicating their dishonesty. Their accusations simplified and eased to raze them, and they have pushed Baloch Nation into an uncertain condition. By now, the situations are implying that nation may trust in any leader or party, hence it is great political loss and misfortune of Baloch Nation.
After 2002, the objective circumstances of Balochistan were fully favoring to nationalist politics for separatists. The so-called parliamentarian parties never were expected for being liberator for Balochs. They also didn’t work for national renaissance too, but merely ever remained engage in gain of personal interests.
Ironically, the separatist parties also couldn’t perform an outstanding role but they have dissented and have formed into fractions. By now they are exploiting their all energies to nagging, criticizing and leverage, mutually. The unsuccessful alliances, irresponsible attitudes, egoism and selfishness and clout have impacted on Baloch to disbelieve in them and they are also disheartened toward Baloch Nationalism. As result, Baloch masses are getting sidelined to these parties including nationalists. Now Baloch people are reluctant to join incredible parties’ calls for protests and rallies.
Dr Mailk Baloch has studied the situations and status-quo of separatist’s parties and released statement that there is no protest and dumping of mutilated bodies. In fact, the discussed series is going on without any abatement, but pro-independent parties are distrusted and lost strength including street power. It is time they review on their decade stretching history and policies; otherwise, they will be disappeared, totally. Merely statements in newspapers never prove their entity on ground. If they are existing, so refute Dr Malik’s statement and demonstrate their power and strength.
By Tariq Baloch
Eid is an Islamic religious festival, fervently celebrated by Muslim with religious sentiments. When People were fluttering by happiness of Eid and were busy in tasting various dishes as commemorating this joyful day. Meanwhile the relatives of Missing Balochs were protesting on roads for the sake of safe recovery of their endear ones. These aggrieved people instead of celebrating and attiring were marching on Roads of Quetta city and demanding for breakage of silence to United Nations and Humanitarian organizations.
Voice for Baloch Missing Persons (VBMP), had given the call, comprising on missing persons relatives. The victim families’ members in large number appeared for protest including women and children. The protesters got mustered in front of Quetta Press club where the token hunger strike camp of VBMP is erected. The protestors were holding snaps of their missing endears, place-cards and banners inscribed with demanding sentences for safe release of missing Baloch political workers.
The protestors marched on Shahra-e-Iqbal, Jinnah Road and walked toward Balochistan High court and Assembly premises. During the march, protestors were chanting slogan “Release the Baloch Missing Political workers”. “United Nation and Humanitarian organizations break their silence and poke in Baloch issue and take action against human right violations in Balochistan”.
The protestors after marching on roads reached to the inception point of event the Quetta press club, where the leading figures delivered speeches to gathering and media men who were there to attended procession for media coverage.
Mama Qadeer Baloch, the vice president of Voice for Baloch Missing Person (VBMP) said, “The State authorities are taking any serious initiative about Baloch Missing Persons; consequently, this issue is getting engrave with the passage of time. More than 15000 people have been missing since than 2001, and among them more than 1400 mutilated bodies have been found. The hundreds dead bodies of Baloch political workers have been found after formation of present government. Women and children are also missing in great number. The people have gone to missing and their mutilated bodies are being found, their guilt is this they were voicing up for their genuine rights. Qadeer Baloch spoke to assembly.
Other speakers also addressed to gathering and in their discourses they criticized on Human Rights Organizations about showing apathy to Baloch issue and negligence to here’s human rights violations.
On the one hand people are agonized that they don’t celebrate Eid, the day of jubilation and even come-out on roads to protest and cry for release of their endears, but on the others hand, the state authorities are busy in dilly-dolly to these aggrieved people by constituting the commissions and investigating teams formation. For pretext to international organizations and media the so-called commission that couldn’t bring a single missing person on surface, neither they could halt the series of throwing mutilated bodies of Baloch political workers.
Bolan Voice Report
Zarjan a Baloch women established protest camp in front of National Press Club Islamabad. Zarjan Baloch is spouse of Zahid Baloch, the chairman of Baloch Student Organization (Azad), who was arrested in Quetta Satellite Town and area of capital in the presence of hundreds citizens. Comrade Lateef Johar, a Baloch Student activist sit on Hunger Strike for more than a month, however, he failed to gain attention of state authorities by his extreme way of protest.
ZarJan Baloch by a press conference at national press club and several times from her protest camp also spoke to media persons that she had pitched-up that camp there in mid of hot and suffocating weather to voice-up for safe release of her husband. “At the time of arrest, the security official said they have apprehended him for merely interrogation and later on he will be let to go. We have lodged first investigate report (FIR) at police station, too.” Zarjan informed.
Zarjan Baloch further said: “Many people witnessed the event when security officials were picking to Zahid Baloch and they are also ready to testify as eye-witness. As against the truth, the government and security official are not consented about preserving Zahid Baloch with them.” She blamed.
Zarjan Baloch said that she had come to capital city of country where rulers reside, with intention to protest accompanied her minor child to awake the conscious of rulers who are denying justice to them.
By Adam Nazar Marri
A leaked ship sinks in the sea when water pours in it, likewise a society moves towards destruction while evils and vices take place in it without any resistance. It is noteworthy to mention here that culture of silence has become common in our society. Despite noticing wickedness and misconduct in the society, people keep calm and do not dare to resist against culprits and wicked persons. There is a well-known saying, “A society or a community does not spoil by evil deeds of ferocious and callous people rather it deteriorates by dint of silence and calmness of great and responsible people.”
Silence culture has given opportunity to miscreants and scoundrels to achieve their targets very easily. When we see a transgressor or a criminal doing crime in the society and we ignore and let them to do their misdeeds. Resultantly, crime and vices level increase in the society. It does not mean that where people speak, write and control criminals and narcotics sellers, there crime and narcotics would be at zero level. There may crime and vices prevail but definitely at minimum level.
More significantly, almost everyone knows about his city or village’s dangerous gangster, heroin sellers, even some people knows target killers but no one has mettle to act against them, however, fear is the biggest barrier in the way of removal of these injurious and devastating elements. The fear and timidity force us to keep silent. The main reason behind prevalence of vices and evil deeds in our society is the culture of silence. When writers halt their pens, when leaders and responsible persons stop speaking against notorious people and culprits. In turn, callous and miscreants play their monstrous role and target killings, kidnapping for ransom, gambling, drinking etc become order of the day everywhere.
More importantly, Arabia before rise of Islam was completely in darkness and despondency. There was no limit of callousness and brutality, female children was buried alive, gambling and drinking of wine were common. At every side just vices and evils were seen. No one could dare to resist against prevailing crimes and evils. When the Messenger had felt the deep length of wickedness and brutality of people. In the long run, He struggled and saved the Arabia, purified the society and transferred darkness into light.
Conclusively, if we see brutality and wickedness at high level today, because there is no one to speak, write or act against culprits and wrongdoers. Our society portrays a picture of grief. Kidnappers kidnap people for ransom easily, targets killers succeed in their missions, narcotics sellers sell their narcotics without any trouble…. And why silence? And till when? Should we sit and watch and let their tide sweep us away? What about our next generation? Should we allow them to fall prey to monstrous evils? No and never. We must speak and we must be bold and let not grow evils and make our societies civilized. It is responsibility of every students, teachers, writers and think tanks to shun fear and trepidations and give a brave fighting against scoundrels and malefactors in order for purification and civilization of society.
By Nagma Noor Bolani
History remains a witness of those moments in which something embarrassing or memorable occurs. Simultaneously, in 1980 the blackest days of Pakistan began while a dangerous kind of drug “opium” put its steps in Pakistan and since then it has become kind of disease for us.
Opium is an addictive drug prepared from the juice of poppy “Palaver somniferous”, used illicitly as a narcotic. It is a kind of poison from which all kinds of drugs are adopted. In the past most dangerous drug was heroin, while in present it is crystal which is shaped like dry milk by the usage of which one can get his body decayed within three years.
Firstly, America made sheeshah for its soldiers in order to be sleepless during the combat, but unfortunately, being used in every nook of and cranny of the world. Afghanistan is the world’s largest grower of illegal opium poppy and produces approximately 90 percent of the world’s illicit opium. Nearly all poppy cultivation occurs in the southern and western parts of the country, especially Helmand Province. Instability in these regions allows criminal networks, insurgent groups, and illicit cultivation and drug production to thrive. This is the country which supplies drugs to the other countries of the world.
Drug addiction is the worst but one of the biggest businesses in the world. It is a kind of weapon which is indirectly used wiping out the individuals of the countries and making them next to nothing like Pakistan.
Recently, two children were killed by their own mother in Karachi due to the father who was in the grip of narcotics and engrossed in his own sunny days and could not provide three times food to his small baby. Though he was a loving father but his eyes were closed with a black intoxicating cloth due to which he could not see the tears of his small babies. Likewise, if these situations continue in Pakistan, the individuals with request to the government will be in hot water.
It is my humble request to the government to apprehend and take incharge of the people doing this illegal work openly and take a high level action on this issue otherwise our country will be as dark as the gloomy nights are.
Yousaf Ajab Baloch
Eid is Muslims’ religious festival to celebrate it happily and wish others happiness and peace on the auspicious occasion.it is the fifth year, while the Muslim world and other parts of Pakistan rejoice Eid day with their relatives, a number of Baloch families including children, women, aged men and young human rights activists gather in Quetta and carryout rallies against enforced disappearances’ and safe release of disappeared Baloch.
To register their protest on this religious festival against disappearance of Baloch from different walks of life the Voice for Baloch Missing Persons (VBMP) rallied again enforced disappearances’ on this Eid as well. The protesters including women, children and aged parents of missing persons chanted slogans against enforced disappearances’ of their loved ones. They marched through different roads of the city and later staged a demonstration outside the Quetta Press Club.
It is worth mentioning that families of abducted Baloch have been protesting on Eid days every year for past five years to express their concerns over abduction and custodial killings allegedly by state security forces and intelligence agencies.
According to Mama Qadeer Baloch, vice president of Voice for Baloch Missing Persons (VBMP), they protest to gain attention of the world community towards tragic deteriorating state affairs in the Balochistan.
Voice for Baloch Missing Persons VBMP, an human rights organization that is struggling for the safe release of Baloch missing persons, numbers missing persons more than 15,000, while more than 1600 decomposed and bullet-riddled dead bodies of them have been recovered in different areas of Balochistn. However, the recovered number of bodies from Tutak mass graves is aside from the above mentioned figure. VBMP is of the view of having complete data of missing person.
Previously, Voice for Baloch Missing Persons leadership provided the data of missing persons to UN working group that visited Quetta in 2012. The same organization also held historic long march from Quetta to Islamabad to highlight the predicament of this humanitarian crisis, even the five years long protest camp of VBMP for missing Baloch could not make state to soften their policies regarding issue of abducted Baloch. They have been appealing the United Nations, the European Union, Amnesty International and other humanitarian organizations for taking notice of enforced disappearances and abduct, kill and dump to play their part in recovery of thousands of missing Baloch. However, the international human rights organization have not played any satisfactory role.
Though, the abduct, kill and dump policy of Baloch was launched in dictator General Pervez Musharraf’s military regime in Balochistan, however, it is still continued unabated despite claims of democracy in Pakistan. The provincial government of Dr Malik Baloch seems stranded pertaining the issue of recovery of dead bodies and abductions. Dr Malik and his ruling party have not been able to change the mindset of state policymakers regarding the Baloch genocide, yet Dr Malik claims to have got stopped the extrajudicial murder of Baloch political activist and other from various fields of life.
The abduction of Baloch, recovery of their decomposed dead bodies and mass graves in Khuzdar must have been great concerns and menaces to civil society, national and international human rights organizations, United Nations and Islamabad; regrettably, these human rights violations have never been taken seriously. It is high time the responsible authorities, Islamabad, champions of human rights defense to take serious measures for the safe release of Baloch political activists, teachers, and doctors and lawyers so that ways may be made for talks with Baloch nationalist.
By MB Baloch, Awaran
Human beings are consistently under the ashes of catastrophic disasters, be the manmade and natural, but the aftermath has similar damages. For a prosperous livelihood, man is in unremitting endeavor to safe his own side. In this self-satisfying race everyone is hard working to win the competition. No one willing accept to lag behind in this cynic race.
Undoubtedly, this is the basic right of every one to build up his/her property and make a gorgeous house for survival. If a powerful person can ransack the property of anyone, the victim by the power of his shoulder tries to resist him and safe his property and households. When a sudden natural disaster comes then the owner of property become helpless to show his anger, because it is a nature fact, everyone has to face the natural happenings. The same case is happened with the people of District Awaran. The whole district jolted by a gigantic earthquake last year. Approximately, 95 percent houses had utterly destroyed. So the people have no claim upon God but they are in prolong wait that might any support will come from the side of power holders. The District is considered the most backward one in Pakistan. The absence of interest towards administration is heart-touching. During the aftershocks CM Dr Malik made tall claims that District would bring in a level of metropolitan city.
Additionally, the whole infrastructure of District will be reshaped within no time. The above surprising pledges yet have given a practical shape. The poor public still under the own made temporary houses, a heavy rain can further will add miseries in their lives.
Scholarships are also announced for the students, sadly by passing of moments the promises remained pipe dream. Recently, 16 million rupees announced to provide shelters to people. Surprisingly, the District authority trying to get a chance of corruption to maintain the culture of their peers. People are crying for shelter besides authority is playing a barbarian game over the rights of poor creatures. This lacks the checks of balance really a mind boggling.
The odor of corruption is coming from the earthquake hit area is an inhuman and immoral action. This mind set without any hesitation is exploiting the innocent poor; unfortunately no one is here to response them. It is brazenly a shameful history that in this advance and technological time, District Awaran is showing a bleak picture. No concept of electricity and pure water. The whole District only has only one hospital but without any modern health care machine. The education institutions are showing a dismal picture. Mostly teachers are selected on the basis of Agaz-e-Haqooq Balochistan package; they know nothing about the teaching method and about students psyche. They only come on salary day and get disappear from the scene for whole month.
Road infrastructure is also showing an untidy scène. Recently, Abdul Qudoos Bezinjoo was elected as a deputy speaker from the District, only during the earthquake he had visited by aero-plane. He does not only same time was elected from the District but since 4 decades he has been ruling the poor people of District, sadly yet has not a historical job to convince the public. So it is a great time for the corridor of powers to think about the miserable condition of inhabitants.
The smell of corruption that is about to emit from the given balance must be stopped without further delay. A committee should be arranged to provide basic rights of life and shelters to people. If the national party is considers a middle class representing party, then prove it pragmatically. If again the power holders could not get lesson from the history, may be the public have no saying but the upcoming time never forget them, because time is cruel no one can escape from it.
By Adnan Amir
The Baloch Students Organization, or BSO, has earned itself national recognition in recent months. However, many outside of Balochistan hardly know either its history or various factions and their respective affiliations. Below is an attempt to trace BSO’s roots and map its various factions.
The earliest available educational records of Balochistan are of 1891. In that year, present day Balochistan had only one high school and two middle schools—one for girls, the other for boys. Only 42 students, of which 15 were girls enrolled in these schools. Fast forward to early 1950s: the lack of an institute of higher education in the entire province of Balochistan meant that a number of Baloch youth started going to Quetta for education. In Quetta, they met Baloch politician Ghaus Baksh Bizenjo, Journalist Agha Abdul Karim Shorish and poet Gul Khan Naseer. They were impressed by them and especially by the poetry of Gul Khan Naseer. Then, on 6th October 1958, the Pakistan Army arrested Khan of Kalat and this became a turning point in the history of Baloch Nationalism. (1)
In 1961, Baloch students studying in various institutes in Quetta came together to form the Warna Waninda Gal (Youth Educational Forum). Abdul Hakeem Baloch became the first president of this organization and Siddique Azat the General Secretary. The stated objectives of the organization included “Promoting Balochi language, literature and debating political conditions.” (2)
Apart from Quetta, Karachi was the other major city with a large population of Baloch students. Here, they established the Baloch Students Educational Organization (BSEO) in 1962 with the prime objective of bringing together Baloch students in Karachi under one umbrella. (3) Then in 1965, at an annual session of the BSEO, it was decided to remove the word ‘educational’ from the name of the organization. It therefore, simply became the Baloch Students Organization or BSO. (4)
Thus there were now two student organizations representing Baloch students. Realizing that this, in effect, divided the organizational strength of Baloch students who were already a minority, the office bearers and members of BSO and Warna Waninda Gal started negotiations regarding a possible merger. These efforts bore fruit and on 26th November 1967 the two organizations merged into one, keeping the nomenclature BSO. A manifesto, called Dastoor ul Amal, was also issued, enumerating the main aims of the organization as the promotion of free and secular education; promotion of the Balochi language, literature and civilization; and the abolition of the one-unit policy that limited provincial autonomy.(5)
The dream of a single Baloch student organization, however, was short lived. Less than a year after the merger of Quetta and Karachi based organizations, it split up into two factions: BSO and BSO-Anti Sardar. The account of how this happened depends on who the story is told by. Ghaus Baksh Bizenjo, a prominent Baloch politician, has written in his book that it was a matter of a minority faction under the leadership of Rahim Zafar breaking away from the parent body. At the time, Bizenjo’s eldest son, Bizen Bizenjo was the president of BSO. After the split, the majority faction came under the leadership of Bizen Bizenjo and Abdul Hayee Baloch. (6)
Rahim Zafar, on the other hand, who held the post of General Secretary of BSO prior to the split, offers an entirely different account in his own book. According to him, Bizenjo and Abdul Hayee Baloch called a night time convention of students from Quetta, of which he was not informed. At this convention, Abdul Hayee Baloch was elected President and Bizenjo General Secretary. Zafar’s claim is that since he was the General Secretary at the time, such decisions regarding the future of the organization could not have been made in his absence. He, thus, subsequently called a convention of his supporters and formed BSO-Anti Sardar. (7)
Independent sources, however, claim that the BSO split was a result of lust for power, with both Zafar and the duo of Abdul Hayee Baloch and Bizenjo desiring to lead the organization. (8)
There are also rumors suggesting that the government of Pakistan, wary of a united Baloch student body, also played a role in its breakup. Most members of BSO-Anti Sardar party, including Zafar, later joined the Pakistan People’s Party (PPP). (9)
BSO led by Abdul Hayee Baloch, on the other hand, became a supporter of the National Awami Party (NAP) and informally came to be called BSO-NAP. (NAP in Balochistan was dominated by Sardars and thus the opposing faction named itself BSO-Anti Sardar.) BSO was also given due importance by NAP, which consulted it before every major decision. BSO president Abdul Hayee Baloch contested the national assembly elections of 1970 on a NAP ticket, defeating Prince Yahya Baloch in the process. (10)
BSO, for its part, actively campaigned for NAP in the elections and played a part in NAP’s victory in Balochistan.
In 1972, at a council session held in Karachi, BSO-Anti Sardar was renamed BSO-Awami.(11)
In February 1973, the central government led by Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, toppled the elected NAP government in Balochistan. In May the same year, it gave orders for the army to commence military operations in the province. During all these years, BSO-Awami (formerly BSO-Anti Sardar) remained active supporters of the PPP (Prominent BSO-Awami members joined PPP, those still in BSO-Awami opposed PPP during operation. Their opposition however was mild as compared to other faction of BSO). Several Baloch tribes, in particular, the Mengal and the Marri, reciprocated the military operation via an armed struggle. Even as several members of BSO actively participated in this armed struggle, others tried peaceful means of protest. A BSO activist, Abdul Majeed Lango, was killed as he tried to assassinate Bhutto in Quetta—the hand grenade he was attempting to hurl on Bhutto, exploded in his own hands. (12)
In 1977, General Zia ul Haq released the NAP leaders who had been taken into custody by the previous government and ended the military operation in Balochistan. NAP leaders, for their part, also called off the armed struggle in Balochistan. This action, however, turned the BSO vehemently against NAP. In 1978, the BSO even dismissed then Chairman Mueem Khan Baloch on grounds that he supported the NAP.
In 1979, Hamid Baloch, a BSO activist, was arrested for attempting to kill Colonel Khalfan of the Oman army in Turbat. Khalfan was in Balochistan to recruit members for Oman Army and BSO opposed this recruitment. Hameed Baloch was tried by a military court and condemned to death. The death penalty was carried out on 11th June 1981. (13) In his final will Hameed Baloch expressed the wish that the two factions of BSO come together. (14)
The period of Zia ul Haq’s dictatorial regime saw several atrocities being carried out against Baloch students. In May 1982, eight school children, most of them under 14 years of age, were protesting peacefully for the restoration of electricity to their school in Turbat. A military court sentenced all eight to three months of rigorous imprisonment.
In 1983, General Rahimuddin, the then Governor of Balochistan, further incensed feelings when he said that he “would not mind keeping all Baloch as shepherds or laborers because their attitude as students is not accommodating.” From 1973 to 1985, 60 percent of all prisoners in Balochistan were students, many of whom were severely beaten and humiliated during detention. (15)
Given this situation, and in view of Hameed Baloch’s will, the two BSO factions decided to unite and a single BSO once again came into being in 1984. However, this was a doomed exercise right from the beginning, with former differences continuing to fester. The attempt at unity, therefore, failed and in 1986 the two factions separated once again, this time splitting into BSO, led by Dr. Yaseen Baloch, and BSO-Sohb—led by Dr. Kahwar Baloch. This was a terrible phase in history of BSO as members of these two factions violently attacked each other in campuses and hostels. (16) This violent aftermath only seemed to prove that the BSO was damaging the Baloch nation rather than doing anything constructive for it.
In 1988, Zia ul Haq sacked the government of Mohammad Khan Junejo and announced new elections. The main political parties in Balochistan at that time consisted of the Pakistan National party (PNP) led by Ghaus Baksh Bizenjo; the Progressive Youth Movement (PYM) led by Raziq Bugti and Habib Jalib; and the Balochistan National Movement (BNM) led by Abdul Hayee Baloch and Akhtar Mengal. BSO, led by Yaseen Baloch faction (BSO-Yaseen) decided to support BNM, while BSO-Sohb, led by Kahwar Baloch, took to supporting PYM. (17)
In 1990, a dispute in the leadership of BNM once again proved how student politics in Balochistan had become a pawn in the hands on political parties. After serving two years as general secretary, Akhtar Mengal thought he should become president of the party. Dr. Abdul Hayee Baloch, the president at the time, didn’t agree. This resulted in the splitting of BNM into BNM-Hayee and BNM-Mengal. (18) BSO-Yaseen became a supporter of BNM-Hayee and BSO-Sohb became supporter of BNM-Mengal, renaming itself BSO-Mengal.(19)
In 1995, the Balochistan National Party (BNP) was created as a result of the merger of BNM-Mengal, PNP and PYM. In 1997, Akhtar Mengal of BNP was elected Chief Minister of Balochistan. Then on 28th May 1998, Pakistan conducted its nuclear tests in the Chagai District of Balochistan. Akhtar Mengal protested against not being taken into confidence regarding the tests, thereby earning the wrath of establishment. At a council session the same year, the BNP spilt into BNP-Mengal and BNP-Awami. (20) As a result BSO-Mengal also spilt up—BSO-Aman became the student wing of BNP-Mengal, and BSO-Istaar (Star) allied itself with BNP-Awami. (21)
1999 saw the cessation of political activity in Balochistan with General Pervez Musharraf imposing martial law, but in 2002, when Musharraf announced elections, electoral politics picked up once again. BSO-Hayee, that was formed in 1990, split into two factions—BSO-Nadir Quddus and BSO-Azad. BNP-Awami, which had broken away from BNP in 1998 further, broke into two—one group retaining the name BNP-Awami, while the other named itself Balochistan National Democratic Party (BNDP). BSO-Istaar, the student wing of the erstwhile BNP-Awami denounced both factions and proclaimed it non-aligned. Later, in the same year, BSO-Istaar merged with BSO-Azad to form BSO-Muthaida. There was a realization that BSO had been reduced to a mere plaything of political parties and the formation of BSO-Muthaida was an effort to make BSO independent. However, this meant that there still were three factions of BSO—BSO-Nadir Quddus, which functioned as the student wing of National Party; BSO-Aman, the student wing of BNP-Mengal; and the independent BSO-Muthaida. (22)
December 2005 saw re-intensification of the Balochistan conflict with the army starting operations in Dera Bugti and Kohlu. The political situation demanded that all political parties of Balochistan come together. The dream of a single Baloch party never came true, but all factions of BSO did merge to form a United BSO in February 2006. (23) However, the egos of the student leaders and the interests of different political parties, once again paved way for a breakup. Just two months into the merger, BSO once again split into three factions: BSO-Azad, BSO-Pajjar and BSO-Mohiuddin. BSO-Azad supports the new BNM, BSO-Pajjar supports National Party and BSO-Mohiuddin supports BNP-Mengal. These factions and their political affiliations have remained the same since 2006. (24)
The contributions of BSO to the society of Balochistan have been numerous. It raised awareness among the Baloch students and organized them. Many leaders of BSO such as Abdul Hayee Baloch, Habib Jalib and Yaseen Baloch went on to become prominent politicians of Balochistan. BSO has always rejected the state sponsored differences between Baloch and Brahui (while the latter is a different language, its speakers are also Baloch). BSO rejected the persecution of Zikri community, which is not considered Muslims by religious clerics and also actively campaigned against one-Unit and supported NAP in 1970 elections. However, these achievements have been over shadowed by the petty politics of its leaders. (25)
A cursory glance at the history of BSO shows that it has never been truly united since its inception in 1967. The reasons for its often-acrimonious breakups can be attributed to the selfish attitude of BSO leaders, the interference of Baloch political parties, manipulation by the federal government and the tribal culture of Balochistan, which does not easily tolerate dissent. The undemocratic attitude of its leaders is also to blame—they have tried to remain leaders while avoiding internal elections. This ultimately frustrates junior members and they break away at some point.
If the leaders of BSO had shown political maturity in 1968 and first breakup had been averted, then perhaps the history of BSO would have been different. In 2006 the military operation was in full swing and under such circumstances break up of BSO was nothing short of a disaster. Now 47 years since its formation it cannot unequivocally be said that the contribution of BSO to Baloch society has been entirely positive. Rather its failure to stay united means that it’s potential as a student organization has been largely frittered away.
(Courtesy to View Point)
- Essays on Baloch National Struggle in Pakistan: Emergence, Dimensions and Repercussions, Janmahmad. Gosha-e-Adab, 1989. P: 214
- Sang-e-Larzan, Abdul Rahim Zafar.BaluceaLuwazonk Publications, 2011. P: 36
- Balochistan Ki Pukaar, Shakeel Ahmad Baloch. Gosha-e-Adab, 2004. P: 27
- Janmahmad. P: 216
- In Search of Solutions, (edited by B. M. Kutty) Mir GhausBakshBizenjo. Pakistan Study Center, University of Karachi, 2009. P: 137
- Zafar. P: 59-78
- Interview with Ex-Office bearer of BSO.
- Janmahmad. P: 218
- Janmahmad. P: 221
- Baloch. P:28
- Janmahmad. P: 219
- Janmahmad. P: 226
- Janmahmad. P: 219
- Janmahmad.P: 229-230
- Baloch. P:29-30
- Baloch. P: 31
- Interview with Ex-Office bearer of BSO.
- Baloch. P: 32
- Balochistan: Aazadi se Subai be-Ikhtiaritak, Ahmad Saleem. Jumhoori Publications, 2013. P: 81
- Baloch. P: 33
- Baloch. P: 33-34
- The End of BSO?Malik Siraj Akbar.https://gmcmissing.wordpress.com/2009/01/04/the-end-of-bso(Jan. 4, 2009)
- Interview with Ex-Office bearer of BSO.
- Janmahmad. P: 227
All celestial object spear to be attached to an invisible sphere of infinite size centered on the Earth. Known as the celestial sphere, this seems to spin around the Earth once o day, although it is actually the Earth that is rotating. The portion of the celestial sphere seen from the Earth depends on the observer’s latitude, the time of night, and the time of year.
There are various important points and lines in the celestial sphere, similar to those on the earth’s globe. Directly over the Earth’s poles lie the celestial poles, around which the sphere appears to turn each day. The celestial equator is a circle on the celestial equator sphere above the Earth’s the celestial sphere above the Earth’s equator. Another circle, known as the ecliptic, represents the Sun’s apparent path around the sphere each year. Of course, Sun’s motion is actually due to the earth orbiting the Sun; hence the ecliptic is really the plane of the Earth’s orbit projected on the celestial sphere. Because the Earth’ axis is tiled at 23.5 degrees, the celestial equator is tilted at the same angle to the ecliptic.
How much of the celestial sphere we can see depends on our latitude. From either pole, only half the sky can ever be seen; on any night, objects circle the celestial pole but do not rise or set (they are circumpolar). At the equator, the whole celestial sphere can be seen in a year; the celestial poles lie on the horizons to the north and south, and all objects rise and set. At multitudes, all of one celestial hemisphere is visible over a year, plus part of the other one. Only some objects are circumpolar.
TIME IF NIGHT AND TIME OF YEAR
As the earth spins, the stars seem to move across they sky; hence our view if the sky changes as the night progresses. The celestial sphere turns once in the time it takes the Earth to spin on its axis relative it the stars-23 hours 56 minutes. But the time between successive noon’s (a mean-time day) is longer, 24 hours, since the Earth is also orbiting
Earlier each night, as measured in mean time. The Earth’s orbit of the Sun also means that a stat near the celestial equator that is in the night sky (and hence visible) at one time of year will be in the daytime sky (and hence invisible) six months later.
During one year, the Sun passes in front of band of constellations along the ecliptic. Collectively known as the zodiac, they from an area in which the planets are always to be seen. The dates when the Sun is in each constellation no longer accord with the date attached to the astrological house of the same name.
By Saher Baloch
IT couldn’t be more ironic. As we enter Marri Camp, near Shalkot — an area outside Quetta playing host to an estimated 100,000 members of the Marri tribe — songs lauding the land that is Pakistan start playing on the radio. At a nearby peak, flags installed by the separatists fly high. A feeling of being completely unwelcome follows. Mud houses — some intact, some caving in due to continuing search operations or plain neglect — can be seen. As the song continues our car swerves on the dirt path leading towards the final resting place of the Marri chieftain, Khair Baksh Marri. What was earlier a bare graveyard is now under a tent, surrounded by carpets, and equipped with a solar panel and a water cooler. In the middle is a graveyard with flags of independent Balochistan flying above, most of them handmade, and on the right of the rugged plain white plaques are installed row after row. Some of the plaques carry in Balochi the names of those who have disappeared over the years. Each has a name of the missing person, his tribe, date of birth, date of disappearance and of recovery (if someone is found, that is) inscribed in black. Other plaques are blank, waiting to be inscribed, I am curtly informed. Most people, the majority of them men, refuse to speak. Those who do, speak in monosyllables. Two months have passed since the memorial was rebuilt. It was destroyed by the Frontier Corps a few days after it was built three months back. “They didn’t want this place to turn into a mazaar [shrine],” says a journalist speaking on the condition of anonymity. “But that’s exactly what happened soon after the Marri chieftain passed away and he was laid to rest here. People want to know where the disappeared are. Many know the answer, but are too scared to articulate it.”
When it comes to the disappeared of Balochistan, the answers are very few. Seven months ago, a shepherd found “bones lying around a mound in Tootak”. Though a judicial tribunal was formed on Feb 1 by the provincial government and Balochistan High Court judge Noor Mohammad Meskanzai went to investigate the graves as head of the tribunal, the findings of the report are still awaited. It was reported a few weeks ago that the report had been given to the chief minister of Balochistan and a decision on whether or not to make the report public would be made after his visit from abroad. Now, it is said the report is sealed and will be made public after the permission of the Supreme Court that took suo motu notice of the case earlier this year.
“This report will never come to the fore,” says a high court lawyer who is not authorised to speak to the media because he accompanied the tribunal during the judicial inquiry. “It is similar to the Hamoodur Rehman Commission formed in 1972. The original report never came out, though there was public outcry and debate over the atrocities committed in what was formerly East Pakistan.” He added that most people who were part of the tribunal on mass graves “are either being sidelined or facing threats by some elements actively involved in disturbing the law and order of Balochistan. Since becoming a part of this commission, my phones are being tapped. And I have to constantly prove my loyalty to my country rather than my expertise as a lawyer.” A few more bodies were found in March after the discovery of the graves in February. “We believed that an area that has been tampered with will reveal itself as a possible mass grave,” says the lawyer. “But a few of the graves we later found were in the ground that didn’t seem like it had been touched for years. This means the mass graves have not been a recent phenomenon. But who’d say that, without losing their life?” Fighting for the recovery of the missing persons since 2009, after receiving his son’s mutilated body, Abdul Qadeer Baloch — better known as Mama Qadeer — holds a vigil at the press club every day. But this afternoon he wants to speak about a security guard that has been deputed outside his camp. “I don’t want to be killed by him,” he says. “I have been sitting here for years now, where was the security then, and why now?” Calming down a little eventually, he speaks about the report and says it will be published for sure. “When half of those responsible are settled abroad or retired or dead or no longer worthy of being protected.”
The subject has been taken from book of Taj Mohammad Breseeg “Baloch Nationalism, its origin and development”.
THE EXPANSION OF BALOCH ETHNO-LINGUISTIC COMMUNITY
Consequently, resistance against alien inroads over long periods of time instilled among the Baloch tribes felling of cohesion. Headed by Mir Chakar Rind, a tribal confederacy, referred by historians as the “Rind-Lashari union”, emerged in 1485. The Rind-Lashari confederacy was one of the largest Baloch tribal confederacies stretching from Kirman in the west to the Indus River Valley in the east, thus for the first time uniting all Baloch areas in late 15th century. The confederacy as Indicated, was mainly centered around the two most powerful tribes of Rind and Lasharis, each in turn, and constituted a loosely organized federation of lesser tribes. In 1987, Mir Chakar Rind transferred the confederacy’s capital from Kech, Makkoran to Sivi, (Sibi), and eastern Balochistan. Having consolidated his power in eastern Balochistan, Mir and southern parts of Punjab in early 16th century.
In spite of being short-lived, this confederacy in many ways marks the beginning of modern history for Balochistan, if was now that the Balochi language and culture were diffused over a vast area. This period also is known as the classical era of the Balochi epic or heroic ballads and romantic poetry. Apparently most of the Balochi ballads are rooted in this period, describing the events, exploits, personalities, and the names of tribes and localities, which collaborated with the history of the 156th and 16th centuries. Parallel to the expansion of the confederacy’s hegemony in the country, Balochi language and oral literature also blossomed, thus strengthening and spreading a relatively homogenous Balochi culture and value system throughout the country. The Rind-Lashar hegemony as observed by Jan Muhammad was the first Baloch principality with pseudo-state machinery reminiscent of similar tribal monarchies in central Asia. However, like the other tribal confederacies of that time in the region, the court language of Mir Chakar was farsi (Persian).
Being depicted as the greatest hero of the Baloch history, Mir Chakar Rind receives highest tributes. It is believed that he was born in Kolwa, headquarter of Makkoran in the middle of the 15th century. He is regards as the direct descendant of the founding father of the Baloch nation. Mir Jala Khan. Describing his genealogy, Sardar Khan writes;
Chakar came of a cultured and princely stock and such is his pedigree; Chakar Ibn Ameer Shaihak ibn Amir Ishaq Ameer Kalo ibn Ameer Bizan ibn Ameer Baloch Khan ibn Ameer Rind ibn Ameer Jala Khan (Han), who lived almost between 1100-1185 A.D., and died in Bampur in Persian Balochistan.
In 1487, Mir Chakar annexed Kharan, Kalat and Las Bela to his domain. His military victory over the tribes of Kalat resulated in a unified Baloch state with its capital at Sivi (SIbi) in about 1487 AD. By the early 16th century the Baloch confederacy under Mir Chakar had established itself firmly in Markoran, Kalat highlands and the fertile districts of Kachi and Sibi in Eastern Balochistan.
It appears that the threat of Shiite Iran in the early years of 16th century would be one the decisive factors for further tribal cohesion and enlargement of the Baloch union. Probably, Shah Ismail’s success in 1501 in establishing a Shiite dynasty in Iran, and his desire to spread Shiism, forced the Sunni Baloch tribes to leave their to spread rivalry aside and strengthen the union and enlarge the Baloch confederacy’s realm. In a conversation with Maulana Abdul Haq Baloch in this subject, he strongly argued that the threat of the Shitte Safavids was one of the decisive factors for the Baloch unity in the Chakarian period. According to Maulana , the Safavids repeated raids were not aimed only to occupy Balochistan, but to compel the Baloch to accept Shiism by farce. In 1613 A.D. the powerful Safavid King Shah Abbas, sent an expedition under the then governor of Kerman Ganj Ali Khan to attack Balochistan, Subsequently, the Baloch ruler of Markkoran, Malik Shams-ud-Din was defeated in Bampur, western Balochistan.
The 16th century saw not only the rise of Safavid power in Iran, but also the Mughal power in India, and the arrival of European ships in the Sea of Oman and the Persian Gulf Towards the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Portuguese found their way to the region and captured several places along the Makkoran coast. In 1510 AD, they occupied the port of Gawadar, and burnt them. Thus, the conflict of interest of these three outside powers (the Safavids, the Mughals and the Porthguess) could not fail to affect the internal politics of the Baloch and other communities that lay between them.
Although the Baloch confederacy did not survive more than free decades (1485-1512), it brought far-reaching cultural and ethnic changes to the region; it reinforced the existing Baloch settlements, which accepted this fresh influx without any opposition. Administratively, the area divided: Sivi with the Rind, and Kech-Gandhava with the Lashari, while a Rind and Kach-Gandhava with the Lashari, while a Rind representative ruled Turan. Soon after the creation of a unified Baloch state, rivalry began between the powerful factions of the confederacy, the Rind and Lashari, and led to civil war with disastrous implications. Their differences began over the division of the fertile lands of Kacchi and Sibi, and led to a thirty-year civil war. The legendary chiefs of the two tribes, Mir Chakar Rind and Mir Gwaharm Lashari, sought help from neighboring rulers.
Finally, the Lasharis suffered a humiliating defeat at the hand of Mir Charkar and fled to Gujarat. Mir Chakar, however weakened by this war stayed in Sibi. Simultaneously he faced the invasion of the Arghuns of Kandahar. After a fiercely contested battle with Shah Baig Arghun, the ruler of Kandahar, Mir Chakar gave up Sibi his capital and moved to Multan.
As earlier mentioned, Mir Chakar Rind ruled for about three decades from Sibi, which became the center of Baloch authority. During his reign, and under his leadership, new standards were set in the arts. Literature, bravery and chivalry even today almost every Baloch tribe aspires to treat in the footprint of Mir Chakar who do not doubt was a brave warrior and at the same time a men filled with compassion generosity, and hospitality. Describing the medieval importance of Sibi, the capital city of the Rind-Lashari confederation, Sardar Khan Khan wrote.
The town of SIbi took its place as the most cultured and commercial town in the whole of Balochistan under the Baloch Ameerate. It remained as the most celebrated capital of Charkar who maintained his imperial court with barbaric and luxuries pageantry patent to medieval glamour. The capital of Rinds acted as the eye of Balochistan and mother of gay societies and songster. The past traditions speak of Sibi as the most high and paly city of Balochistan, housing population of one hundred thousand souls… in Sibi, flock poets and beaux espirts of Makkuran Sind and songstresses of Persian Balochistan.
The Baloch nationalist describe the region of Mir Chakar Rind as the golden age of the Baloch and regard his as the “Great Baloch”. Sardar Khan asserts, the age of Rind supremacy in all supremacy in all spheres of Baloch life, in its way and color was just as important in its crude form in Baloch history as the Age of Percales in ancient Greece, the Renaissance at the close of the Middle Ages, and the Industrial Revolution in modern time”. Having molded their destiny by uniting them under one banner, Mir Chakar Rind gave the scattered Baloch tribes a common identity. Thus, in nationalist account he is considered “like a pillar of strength for the Baloch race and author of Baloch code of honor and Balochi traditions
It is believed that Mir Chakar had an army of 40,000 men, while Babur conquered India with an army of only 12,000 soldiers. Describing his army, Marri wrote, “forty thousand warriors collect on Mir’s call, all descendants of one ancestor. All bedecked with coast of mail and Iron armours covering their head, chest and fore-arms; all are armed with bows and arrows, with silken scarves, with overcoats, and red boats on their feet with golden rings on their fingers”. The Baloch under Mir Chakar were well organized and well discipline. It is speculated that Mir Chakar had some 400,000 to 500,000 followers on his march. The misfortunate of Mir Chakar according to Inayatullah Baloch was that he did not have the political imagination or skill to convert his tribal confederacy into a more unified political identity.
The Baloch nationalist regard Mir Chakar as the symbol of their unity and strength. “We are the sons of Chakar”, is the most famous song in the Baloch nationalist circles. He mastered the martial virtues of the Baloch and established the largest ever, even though short-lived Baloch confederacy Marri writers of him:
To this day Mir Chakar is regarded as one of the greatest heroes of the Baloches. He is the center of greatest heroes of the Baloches. He is the center of Baloch love-lore and war-ballads. A natural leader of men, it was him who nearly for two decades remained the sole leader of all the Baloches. He captured by strength of arm the Kalat highlands as well as lower Balochistan, and settled the Baloches there. Again, thanks to him and his arms, the Baloches later on ruled not only in Balochistan but also in Punjab and Sindh as well. Had it not been for Mir Chakar, there would have been not Kalat state, nor Talpur rulers of Sind; nor could the Punjab Baloches have found it easy to secure Jagirs and settle down there.
Although the Baloch whop settled in Punjab and Sindh are not closely linked to the mainstream of Baloch life today, but the principal link with their past for most of them is the vast body of popular ballads dating back to the day of Mir Chakar. Handed down from generation to generation, and first recorded by British scholars, sund by professional wandering minstrels, central to a considerable extent on Rind-Lashari conflict. In these ballads, Mir Chakar occupies a dominant position.
In Balochi poetry, be it war ballads or love lyrics, Mir Chakar is mentioned extensively. As indicated above, it was he who led the Baloch tribes into the highlands of Kalat and lowlands of Kacchi. Again it was due to him that the Baloch came to rule over parts of Sindh and in Multan, even of for only short periods. He died in ca.1550 A.D. , and lies buried in a mausoleum in the Shaiwal district of Punjab.
The inter-tribal rivalry dealt a fatal blow to the Baloch confederacy. It destroyed Baloch central organization, weakened their strength and forced them to leave Balochistan and migrate eastwards, to Sindh and Punjab. In Sardar Khan Baloch’s opinion, “The fratricidal plunged the whole race into a bath of blood and made the Baloch structure to collapse and sapped to its foundation”. The main reasons, according to Inyatullah Baloch, were the nomadic character of the Baloch society and the lack of statesmanship of Mir Chakar’s failure to stop Lashari challenges had so polarized the community and the civil war so drained the tribes that the Baloch failed to maintain their confederacy. The division of the newly occupied land and the political power, according to Professor Abdullah Jan Jamaldini of Balochistan University factions, the Rinds and the Lasharis.
In this respect, however, the interference of the two powerful neighbors of Balochistan, the Arghuns of Kandahar and the Sammas of Sindh played an important role. Their constant involvement protracted the war. As viewed by Dr Shah Mohammad Marri, “The rich lands of Sibi not only coveted the Baloch feudals, but also whet the Rind chief, Mir Chakar Rind, while the Sammas gave their assistance to the opponent camp, headed by Mir Gwahram Lashari. As a result of this lasting war the Baloch power in Balochistan weakened and finally disintegrated.
Thus, wakened by years, long war with the Lasharis, Mir Chakar Rind after being badly mauled by the Arguns in a battle near Sibi, moved with his remaining army to Multan. At the end of the Charkarian ere the whole Baloch society was disrupted by inter-tribal wars, which led to enormous migration toward Sindh and Punjab. Mir Chakar, as mentioned above, migrated with about four to five hundred thousand persons.
The end of the Rind-Lashari confederacy in about 1512 A.D. ended an era in Baloch history. Subsequently, the Baloch country was dived into several independent kingdom, including the Dodai Kingdom of Derajat, the Makkoran Kingdom of Malik and Boleidai, and the Khanate of Kalat. Civil strife continued for about a century until Mir Ahmed Khan of the Ahmadzai tribe established the Khanate of Balochistan or the second important Baloch confederacy in 1666 AD. Its unification, however was completed by the Khans of Kalat, Abdullah Khan (1714-1734), and Nasir Khan the Great (1749-1795), which will e discussed in the following section.
The Khanate of Balochistan
The Khanate of Balochistan grew, and became established, from the middle of the seventeenth century onwards, Centering in the Kalat highlands, southwest of Mir Chakar’s former capital, the Khanate was the Baloch State to embrace all the Baloch regions such as Makkoran, Western Balochistan, Derajat, Sistan, and Lasbela and consolidate them into a body under the authority of a central government. The Khanate not only gave the Baloch a concept of unity and patriotism but also provided an unwritten constitution. The Khanate of Balochistan later became known, as the Khanate of Kalat or state because of its capital city, Kalat.
When in 1666, Mir Ahmad 1 was elected by the Jirga (council) of the elder or tribal assembly), as the Kahn of Kalat, the Khanate was a loose confederacy of Baloch tribes living around Kalat. As a political synthesis, its internal cohesion was still very weak, and indeed such weakness is typical of all tribal confederations; there were numerous local power centers, but no sovereign figure of reference. The Khanate of Kalat came into being by exploiting this very vacuum, which followed after the disintegration of the Rind- Lashari confederacy in Balochistan in the early fifteen century.
Mir Ahmed I Expanded the border of the Khanate. From then on, the history of the Khanate assumed a clear, define shape; and is chronology could be determined. Formation of the Khanate of Kalat, according to historian Inyatullah Baloch, was another important and significant chapter of Baloch history. The Rind-Lashari confederacy did not survive because of its nomadic character but it did not expand because independence on Mughal India. Makkoran maintained its independence but failed to expend due to the Persian invasion and internal tribal conflicts with its Baloch neighbor, Kalat.
As indicated above, since the fall of the Rind-Lashari confederacy in 16th century, various empires and political syntheses were in fact contending for the Baloch country; the Shiite Safavids to the west and the Mughal to the east, both intent upon consolidating their frontiers, so as to fend off forays and incursions by nomadic tribes from Afghanistan and Central Asia. Thus, the rising Baloch confederacy was entangled in continual with the Mughal and Persian empires.
To encounter the growing pressure of the Shiite Safavids the founder of the Ahmadzai dynasty Mir Ahmad I pursued a policy of friendship with the powerful emperor of India, Aurangzeb. However, in the region of Mir Samandar, the Iranian army under General Tahmasp invaded Balochistan aiming to occupy western Balochistan but it was defeated and Tahmasp ws killed. The Mughal emperor not only admired this deed but also agreed to pay him Rs. 200,000 annually as military aid to meet the challenges of Iranian aggression.
The Khanate of Kalat of consolidated most of the Baloch country into a feudal state during the 18th century. During the early 18th century, Abdullah Khan, the fourth Khan (1714-1734) expanded his realm “from Kandahar in what is now southeastern Afghanistan, across the Makran area all the way to Bandar Abbas in what is now a southern Iranian port and extended his dominion to embrace Dera Ghazi Khan District on the edge of Punjab”. By the middle of the eighteenth century, Nasir Khan I (the Sixth Khan), the most popular, powerful and dynamic ruler of the Khanate (1749-1795) claimed sovereignty over “all lands where Baloch’s lived”.
He brought Karachi and most of western (Iranian) Balochistan under his administration.
Speaking of Nasir Khan, Masson, narrator of various journeys in Balochistan, said, “At an early period he consolidated his authority over an immense kingdom, the secret of his success being that he had influence enough to ensure the obedience of his feudal chiefs, and discretion enough to refrain from interfering in their internal affairs”. With the confederate force bound to him by this feudal tie, Nasir Khan consolidated his dominions.
The Marris and the Bugtis, Las Bela, Makkoran, Kharan, and Quetta formed his kingdom. Moreover, according to Harrison, at the height of his power, Nasir Khan renewed Kalat’s claims of severity over the Iranian Baloch areas and sent occasional expeditionary forces to his western borderlands.
Nasir Khan I reigned from the seaboard stretching from Karachi for about 400 miles west to the present Iranian frontier, the cairn of the Maliks west to the present Iranian “Minab River” and up to Quetta and east from Quetta to the Derajat border- a country considerably greater than Great Britain and Ireland put together. Administratively, Nasir Khan came closer to establishing a centralized bureaucratic apparatus covering all of Balochistan then any other Baloch ruler before or since. Organizing the civil and military affairs of the Baloch Khanate on semi-modern lines, Nasir Khan established a “proto-parliament based on a workable constitution and congenial Baloch tradition”. He had Wazir (prime Minister), who supervised all internal administration, and foreign affairs matter, and a Mustoufi, whose responsibility was to collect revenue from crown currency. Like Mir Jalal Khan and Mir Chakar Rind, Nasir Khan continues to be among the most popular heroes in the Baloch folklore and political literature. (To be continued)
The combined average temperature over land and ocean surfaces was a “record high for the month at 61.20 Fahrenheit (16.22 Celsius),” said the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
That meant June was a total of 1.30°F (0.72°C) warmer than the 20th century average for the month, surpassing the last record high temperature for June set in 2010, said NOAA.
Taken alone, the ocean´s global surface temperature in June was the highest for any month on record, breaking the past record set in 1998, NOAA added.
“Most of the world experienced warmer-than-average monthly temperatures, with record warmth across part of southeastern Greenland, parts of northern South America, areas in eastern and central Africa, and sections of southern and southeastern Asia,” NOAA said in a statement.
“Similar to May, scattered sections across every major ocean basin were also record warm.”
Sea ice in the Arctic declined faster than normal for June, and was nearly five percent below the 1981-2010 average, NOAA said.
The findings are part of an ongoing trend of rising global temperatures.
June has been warmer than the 20th century average for 38 years in a row, the agency said.
Its report last month also found that May was a record-setter, also topping the previous high set in 2010.The last time June broke records for being cooler than normal was in 1976.
MOSCOW: A vast crater discovered in a remote region of Siberia known to locals as “the end of the world” is causing a sensation in Russia, with a group of scientists being sent to investigate. The giant hole in the remote energy-rich Yamalo-Nenetsky region first came to light in a video uploaded to YouTube that has since been viewed more than seven million times. “The crater is enormous in size — you could fly down into it in several Mi-8s (helicopters) without being afraid of hitting anything,” the person who posted the video, named only as Bulka, wrote.
The video can be seen at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2kMs05VaOfE. The crater is located in the permafrost around 30 kilometres (18 miles) from a huge gas field north of the regional capital of Salekhard, roughly 2,000 kilometres northeast of Moscow.
The appearance of the mysterious chasm prompted numerous conspiracy theories and speculation that it may have been caused by something otherworldly, with some even suggesting aliens might be behind it.
Initial theories suggesting the crater was caused by a meteorite, however, were dismissed by scientists.
“This does not stand up to any criticism,” the deputy director of the Oil and Gas Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vasily Bogoyavlensky, was quoted as saying by Interfax news agency.
He said the crater was likely to have been caused by the melting of underground ice in the permafrost, freeing gas that then built up high pressure and broke through to the surface. “At some point an explosion took place without any flame,” Bogoyavlensky said.
In an effort to discover its mysteries, regional governor Dmitry Kobylkin sent a group of scientists into the tundra where the crater is located in the Yamal peninsula — which translates as “the end of the world”, Interfax reported.
Marina Leibman, chief researcher at the Earth Cryosphere Institute, which studies permafrost, was part the team sent to scour the area. “A thorough search showed there were no traces of people or machinery” by the crater, Leibman said in a statement released by local authorities.
She said that the crater could not have been caused by a meteorite because there were no traces of burning around the edge.
“It most likely happened when pressure went up in some cavity containing deposits of marsh gas (methane),” she said.
“So far this is just a hypothesis, the least contradictory one. There is no proof,” she cautioned.
Bolan Voice Report
Inour fast developing globe there is no welcoming of Talibanization in modernization, specially in western countries, where terrorism is not rife and it is mentally and physically opposed by rational beings given the substantive goal of our lives; is to be peace and love promoters. For the same matter, the United States of America, after the fatal assault on the world Trade Center which resulted in the death of thousands of its innocent citizens by al-Qaeda group, the attack better known as 9/11, deployed some troops to Afghanistan for the security of Afghan and American people and in order to crush the Taliban groups from the soul of Afghanistan. Thus, now we all are under impressions that the American troops will withdraw from Afghanistan at the end of 2014 and the world will be disturbed at the hands of Taliban, Indeed, American troops are not withdrawing, to understand more of what is going on, BLV, brings you the most exclusively comprehensive report of it from sources that aim at broadening your knowledge of current state of affairs.
There are indeed ten amazing facts to know in relation with the withdrawal of ISAF troops from Afghanistan.
Fact 1: It is not the case that all US troops will be removed from Afghanistan at the end of 2014. In June 2011, President Obama announced his plan to begin the withdrawal of US troops from Afghanistan. But the president did not say that all US troops would leave Afghanistan by the end of 2014. What he did say was 10,000 troops would be removed by the end of the summer 2011, with 23,000 additional troops leaving at the end of the summer of 2012. After that, according to the President “their troops will continue coming home at a steady pace as Afghan security forces move into the lead. Their mission will change from combat to support. By 2014, this process of transition will be complete, and the Afghan people will be responsible for their own security”.
Notice that the President did not say that their mission in Afghanistan will end by 2014, only that it will cease to be a “combat” mission and become a “support” mission. White House Press Secretary Jay Carney has since confirmed that President Obama never said US troops would be completely withdrawn by the end of 2014. What you should be asking yourself is, “what is a support mission?”, “how many troops will be required for it?”, and “how long will it last?” We will get to these questions shortly. First, it’s important to highlight one thing:
Fact 2: There is currently no end date for the war in Afghanistan.
Nowhere in the President’s June 2011 speech did he mention a deadline for the full withdrawal of US troops from Afghanistan, and no date for full withdrawal has been specified since then. In fact, the Strategic Partnership Agreement, which was struck between the United States and Afghanistan in June 2012, provides for a US military presence after 2014, although the magnitude of the presence was not specified. On November 15, 2012, it was reported that Afghanistan and the United States had begun negotiations for a bilateral security agreement, which will govern the US military presence in Afghanistan post-2014, including how many troops are left in Afghanistan, and for how long.
Fact 3: There is no set plan for removing the remaining 68,000 troops left in Afghanistan.
Not only are there currently twice as many US troops in Afghanistan today as there were when President Obama took office, but the administration has yet to outline a specific plan for removing the 68,000 troops that remain, except that most of them will be removed by the end of 2014. A decision about a scheduled for the removal of these troops will not be made until after a decision is made about the number of residual troops the US will leave in Afghanistan post-2014. However, it has been reported that General John Allen wants to keep over 60,000 US troops until the fall of 2013.
Three options were being considered in March 2012:
- The drawdown plan said to be favored by Vice President Joe Biden would drawdown troops rapidly, to perhaps 20,000, by the end of 2013.
2. A more gradual drawdown plan calls for removing 10,000 troops by the end of December 2012, leaving 58,000 troops. An additional 10,000 to 20,000 would be removed by June 2013, leaving between 48,000 and 38,000 troops in Afghanistan, still more than were in the country when President Obama took office.
3. Military commanders are said to favor delaying further cuts until the end of 2013, including Lt. Gen. Curtis Scaparrotti, who was the second-in-command of US forces in Afghanistan until June 2012 and is now the Director of the Joint Staff.
Fact 4: Reports indicate that the Pentagon wants to keep between 6,000 and 20,000 US troops in Afghanistan until at least 2024.
On November 12, 2012, Defense Secretary Leon Panetta told reporters that the Obama administration would come to a decision within the next few weeks about the magnitude of the US post-2014 military presence in Afghanistan. Panetta would not comment on the troop levels being considered. Since then, it has been reported that General John Allen, head of the ISAF, has submitted three plans for an enduring US presence in Afghanistan: With 6,000 troops, the focus of the US mission would be on counterterrorism missions, and logistical and training support for Afghan forces would be limited; With 10,000 troops, the US could expand training and logistical support from the 6,000 troop plan; With 20,000 troops, US conventional forces could be used to patrol certain areas.
All of these options include troop commitments smaller than the 25,000 troops the Pentagon is said to have favored since Obama’s drawdown announcement. However, just days after General Allen’s recommendations made news, the Wall Street Journal reported that President Obama requested three additional proposals in which troop levels did not exceed 10,000. The plans submitted by the Pentagon included:
A 3,000 troop option, which Pentagon officials strongly warned against;
A 6,000 troop option, assumed to be the same as the 6,000 troop option described above;
A 9,000 troop option, assumed to be similar to the 10,000 troop option above.
Out of these three options, the Pentagon is said to favor the 9,000 troop option, while the White House is said to favor the 6,000 troop option. Keep in mind that there were only 34,000 troops there when Obama took office. If 20,000 troops are kept in Afghanistan after 2014, that means that the net withdrawal would be a mere 14,000 troops. Furthermore, before 2007, troop levels were at roughly 20,000 or less. So leaving 20,000 troops in Afghanistan would be to merely return to 2006 troop levels. Leaving 9,000 or 10,000 troops would be a return to 2003 troop levels. If the Pentagon gets its way, the US will be at war in Afghanistan for at least 12 additional years—that’s one more year than we’ve been at war to this point. That means that we wouldn’t even be at the half-way mark today, let alone nearing the end!
Fact 5: The “support” mission will not necessarily be small, nor will it be free of combat missions.
A “support” mission sure sounds more reassuring than a combat mission, right? Sounds like only a few troops will remain behind to support the Afghan security forces? Any close reading of the US public position on its post-2014 mission in Afghanistan immediately dispels such consoling thoughts. Just look at the plans General John Allen has proposed for the US enduring presence, listed above. Each of the Pentagon’s proposals includes a counterinsurgency element. In fact, the 6,000 troop plan, which the White House is said to favor, prioritizes direct counterinsurgency missions over logistical support and training for the Afghan security forces, even though it is supposedly for the latter reason that US officials claim an enduring presence is necessary.
Meanwhile, the plan involving the largest amount of troops adds a patrol capacity, which is clearly a combat, not a support, capacity. It is likely that a combat capacity is emphasized in the Pentagon’s plans due to a recognition that the Afghan security forces, even after a decade of training, are far from ready to take over security for the country. Further, the US “support” mission in Iraq serves as an example and a warning for the continued US military presence in Afghanistan. The combat mission in Iraq supposedly ended in August 2010, at which point troop levels were brought down to 50,000. In October 2011, over a year later, there were still about 45,000 troops left in Iraq. Furthermore, these supposedly non-combat troops would engage in combat missions and were described as having a “combat capacity” by administration officials, including former Secretary of Defense Robert Gates, in which they engage in “targeted counterterrorism operations” and work and fight alongside Iraqi security forces.
In light of this, “support” seems to be nothing more than a euphemism for extended combat. Per a previous agreement between the US and Iraqi governments, all US troops were supposed to leave Iraq at the end of 2011. That didn’t stop the Obama administration from trying to pressure the Iraqi government to extend the deadline, allowing the US to leave up to 10,000 troops indefinitely. Fortunately, this plan has been abandoned, and all but about 150 US troops attached to the US Embassy left on time. But a similar fight over keeping to a deadline for withdrawal may erupt in the future over Afghanistan—whenever a deadline is, in fact, established.
Fact 6: Obama’s “surge” is not over:
In September 2012, it was widely reported that Obama’s “troop surge” in Afghanistan was over, leaving 68,000 troops in the country. But when President Obama took office, there were only roughly 34,000 US troops in Afghanistan. In two “surges”, Obama added to this figure over 66,000 additional troops. By reducing the US troop presence by 33,000; his drawdown plan has removed only half the number of troops that he sent to Afghanistan, not all.
Fact 7: There are less than 100 al Qaeda left in Afghanistan—but there are over 600,000 Afghan and international forces there to fight them:
In June 2010, Leon Panetta said that there were less than 100 members of al Qaeda left in Afghanistan. According to the latest Brookings Institute Afghanistan Index, there are about 108,000 international troops in Afghanistan under NATO and Operation Enduring Freedom; 344,108 Afghan Security Forces; 90,000 private Defense Department contractors; and 2,000 private contractors training the Afghan Army. Additionally, there are 150,000 Pakistani troops on the Afghanistan-Pakistan border. That’s a grand total of 694,108 versus 100. Seems bit overkill.
Fact 8: The lack of a timetable for withdrawal is a key obstacle in peace negotiations with the Taliban:
Taliban spokesmen have made it quite clear that peace requires a willingness by the US to leave; but the US military has done just the opposite through its negotiations with the Afghan government to keep tens of thousands of US troops in Afghanistan indefinitely.
Fact 9: There is elite support for an expedited withdrawal:
Elite groups ranging from the Afghanistan Study Group, which was endorsed by a large number of national security and Middle East experts, to the New York Times have come out in support of an accelerated US military withdrawal from—and oppose an extended military stay in—Afghanistan.
Congress has also expressed support for a quicker withdrawal. On November 30, 2011, the US Senate adopted a measure by voice vote in favor of an accelerated US military withdrawal from Afghanistan. In May 2012, 90 Members of Congress joined Rep. Barbara Lee in calling upon President Obama to expedite the withdrawal. And in November 2012, the Senate voted 62-33 in favor of a measure that calls upon President Obama to continue withdrawing US troops at a steady pace, to end all regular US combat missions in Afghanistan no later than December 31, 2014, and to “take all possible steps” to end such operations earlier.
Fact 10: There is popular support for ending the war now:
Although polls of American public opinion on US withdrawal from Afghanistan tend to conflate the withdrawal of all “combat” troops with the withdrawal of all troops, majorities are still shown to oppose an indefinite US military presence in Afghanistan. A March 2012 Gallop poll reported 50% of Americans in favor of withdrawing all US troops before 2014, with an additional 24% favoring a full withdrawal by the end of 2014. An October 2012 Pew poll found an even greater majority in favor of a quick withdrawal: 60% of Americans said they wanted US troops removed from Afghanistan as soon as possible, while only 35% support leaving US troops there “until the situation stabilizes.”
What is perhaps most interesting about some of these polls is that they seem to reflect a general confusion over President Obama’s plan for withdrawal from Afghanistan. The Pew poll, for example, reported that 73% of Democrats supported a quick withdrawal from Afghanistan instead of waiting. Yet, 66% of Democrats say that President Obama is handling the removal of US troops “about right.” Also interestingly, the Pew poll reported 25% of Republicans said that President Obama is removing troops too slowly.
Ashraf Jehangir Qazi
If the Pakhtun had Bacha Khan, the Muslim Bengalis had Suharwardy and the Sindhis had G M Syed, then the Baloch had Khair Baksh Marri. Each one of them was a political leader of outstanding integrity and tenacity. Sadly, the Punjab of Pakistan – possibly due to historical, cultural and geographical reasons – has never been able to produce a political leader of any positive character and consequence. All they have ever aspired to is self-serving political gimmickry. This fact has always countered and negated the political potential of the country.
Tragically, the ‘success’ of this political gimmickry of the Punjab establishment (not the Punjab people) over the grievance politics of the ‘minority’ provinces has stymied the political development of the country. Military interventions and interference has been an integral part of this paradigm. Foreign and security policy disasters have followed inevitably.
Khair Bakhsh Marri became the strongest symbol of resistance to this paradigm. In this sense he was a national leader despite his extreme disillusionment with the way the country had evolved, particularly at the expense of his own people. He was a sardar and a socialist. Some might argue that made him into a reactionary and a progressive rolled into one. His critics argued that this accounted for his political confusion. Harsher critics from the establishment alleged it accounted for his political “hypocrisy” and pointed to the iniquitous nature of traditional Baloch tribal society where the sardar or tumandar represented in his person the ‘the whole weight’ of his tribe, reducing the individual tribal Baloch to ‘weightlessness’.
However, the truth is that Khair Bakhsh was well aware of the limitations of tribal society even though he admired its simplicity and nobility as well as its values of identity, honour and loyalty. His socialism was not just an expression of his opposition to the forceful intrusion of a de-tribalised and degenerate elite nurtured and controlled by foreign masters; it was also a recognition that tribal society was largely a thing of the past, and would now need to become part of a more egalitarian and inclusive society in which it would be able to retain and renew its identity. But neither he nor his people would respond positively to diktat and imposition.
Was his attitude politically feasible? Did he consistently adhere to his principles? Did he recognise and prioritise the policy implications of his political convictions? While positive answers to each of these questions might be problematic, a negative answer to each of them would certainly be wrong and dishonest.
Khair Bakhsh Marri was not an intellectual. But he had a fundamental sense of what was right and just and what was wrong and unacceptable. He intuitively and correctly saw that neither he nor his people were given the space in which to freely find a place of dignity, equity and security in the post-independence political system. This system had, by and large, been imposed upon them by a new set of post-colonial, distant, dishonest, uncaring, and oppressive rulers. They had inherited a tradition of servility and service to outsiders, a tradition in which they apparently took pride and sought to exercise political power for the first time.
Accordingly, they could never even begin to comprehend the so-called ‘threat’ of ‘regional nationalisms’, which were in fact the essential and historical substance of the new country of Pakistan.
Without enabling and encouraging this substance of regional nationalisms to freely develop and progressively merge into the meta-substance of a genuinely inclusive and participatory Pakistani nationalism, the country could have no sustainable existence.
The tragedy of East Pakistan was proof of this fact. The tragedy of Balochistan has been proof of our leadership’s refusal to learn anything. This fact continues to rule our country today – with all its devastating consequences. The Pakistan in which Khair Bakhsh and his people found themselves was one in which these facts were already beginning to define its destiny. Accordingly, he was brave and sincere enough to say he would have nothing to do with such a country, and would resist its “exploitation and hegemony” without compromise.
Was this the correct or only possible response? Maybe not. Did Khair Bakhsh’s despairing response to what he saw as an impossible situation for his people define him as a traitor to Pakistan? One would have to be a supreme hypocrite to say so.
Was Khair Bakhsh Marri honoured by the Baloch people of Pakistan and beyond for his stance? Without doubt he was honoured by them like no Baloch leader has ever been since the creation of Pakistan – with no exceptions. Are the Baloch people, therefore, traitors to Pakistan?
Is it also not a fact that politically aware people all over Pakistan deeply respected him for his principled tenacity? Are they also traitors? If not, why was Khair Bakhsh deliberately misrepresented, harassed, imprisoned, ignored and isolated by the establishment and by each and every ruler of Pakistan? Does that reflect on Khair Bakhsh Marri or on the quality of the ruling establishment it has been the fate of Pakistan to suffer?
Shallow leaders from time to time sought to meet him as part of their political gimmickry. Generally, he politely but firmly refused to meet them. Did that mean he was stubborn and unreasonable? To an extent, maybe. But, much more importantly, it meant he did not wish to waste his time in dealing with political gimmickry or to have any truck with political insincerity.
It has been alleged that Khair Bakhsh Marri and his associates were financed by India and possibly other countries. I do not know the facts. But what I do know is that such charges have never been backed up with any evidence. Moreover, if a people are denied any hope of redress for their grievances within national political processes, they will eventually be denied any sense of participation in the nation. The ruling establishment, in such circumstances, will forfeit the right to make such allegations against an alienated people and their political leaders even when there may be a kernel of truth to them.
Such allegations become part of the hypocrisy and oppression that alienated them in the first place. The refusal of the ruling elite to seriously address and redress the issue of political alienation is itself an anti-Pakistani act, especially in the light of our historical experience, which we seek to forget even as we repeat it.
All said and done, Sardar Khair Bakhsh Marri’s political career, including the political commitments he made, add up to the kind of selfless political leadership that is sorely lacking in Pakistan today. That is why, despite any differences I might have had with some of his political positions, I salute my brother-in-law in his passing as one of the great Baloch sons of Pakistan – and therefore as one of the great Pakistani political leaders. May Pakistan embrace his memory as such. (Courtesy to TheNews)
Inna-lillahi wa inna ilayhi raji’oon
The writer is a former envoy to the US and India.Email: email@example.com
By Basheer Ahmed Ijbari
Polio is known as poliomyelitis; it is infantile paralysis as well as it is an acute communicable disease caused by the poliovirus and ranges in severity from in apparent infection to fatal paralytic illness. First recognized in 1840, poliomyelitis became epidemic in Norway and Sweden in 1905. Outbreaks reached pandemic proportions in Europe, North America, Australia, and New Zealand during the first half of this century. Incidence peaked during the 1940s and early 1950s, and led to the development of the Salk vaccine.
Although polio can cause a paralytic disease and the result will be death, the stretched majority of people who have been affected by the poliovirus many people have developed symptoms from poliovirus contact no paralytic polio, it is type of polio that doesn’t lead to paralysis abortive polio, this usually causes in a same mild, flu-like sign and its symptoms are typical of other viral diseases.
Symptoms which generally last one to 10 days, include:
- Sore throat
- Back pain or stiffness
- Neck pain or stiffness
- Pain or stiffness in the arms or legs
- Muscle weakness or tenderness
Discovery of Polio Vaccine:
Two polio vaccines are used throughout the world to combat poliomyelitis (or polio). The first was developed by Jonas Salk and first tested in 1952. Announced to the world by Dr Thomas Francis Jr. on April 12, 1955, it consists of an injected dose of inactivated (dead) poliovirus. An oral vaccine was developed by Albert Sabin using attenuated poliovirus. Human trials of Sabin’s vaccine began in 1957, and it was licensed in 1962. There is no long term carrier state for poliovirus in immunocompetent individuals, polioviruses have no non-primate reservoir in nature (although they have been induced in transgenic mice), and survival of the virus in the environment for an extended period of time appears to be remote. Therefore, interruption of person to person transmission of the virus by vaccination is the critical step in global polio eradication. The two vaccines have eradicated polio from most countries in the world, and reduced the worldwide incidence from an estimated 350,000 cases in 1988 to just 223 cases in 2012.
In November 2013, the World Health Organization announced a polio outbreak in Syria. In response, the Armenian government put out a notice asking Syrian Armenians under age 15 to get the polio vaccine. It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, a list of the most important medication needed in a basic health system.
Entire world through vaccination has got immunized from grim disease “the Polio” but unluckily Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria are harboring the patients with virus on distressing level that in these mentioned countries and it can breakout then as epidemic on sudden time in told states.
The Pakistan caused transformation of virus to China, Egypt and Syria where it has incapacitated many children. This has persuaded that WHO declared the spread [PHEIC] Health Emergency of International Concern and recommends some points to constrain the rapid spread of virus and these will valid for three months, but in case of non-effectiveness the short-term sanctions can be extended on.
In current year, Pakistan is on top in the rank of polio cases with 83 totally affected children have been incapacitated by this viral disease of polio, while in Afghanistan 6 and in Nigeria 3 cases of polio have been reported so far.
The abysmal situation in Pakistan regarding polio has impelled the International World to take some dire steps because for safety of people and they are also obliged to take pre-emptive measures. The World Health Organization, WHO, has imposed travelling sanction on Pakistan in 5th May, 2014, in that vaccination certificate of polio is stapled with Pakistan travellers to abroad. The WHO restriction will effect ten countries of world; Pakistan, Syria, Cameroon, Eqvodore Genie, Ethiopia, Nigeria and Somalia. The WHO has recommended sanction on above mentioned states or that will be under sanctions, directly.
On international level some immediate initiatives are required to be taken:
• Emergency is to be called against Polio in effected countries.
• The polio virus-catering countries’ citizens who intended to travel other countries for one month or for more than one month for them it is compulsory to get vaccinated earlier four weeks or for injection time lasts a year. In case of dash, the citizen must be vaccinated for polio before the departure.
• The certificate of vaccination by departments concerned must be provided to the travelling citizens.
These 3 months scheduled sanction comprises the directive that vaccination is compulsory for all people irrespective of their age differences, the pregnant passengers also included in vaccination because the polio vaccine is not impair for them.
Polio in Pakistan:
Currently, Pakistan is the country which is catering polio virus in largest scale in the whole world. In addition to that, in Pakistan, polio disease has paralyzed 83 children beyond June 23, 2014, while 19 cases were reported in previous year. During 2014 in FATA 64, in Khyber Paktun Khuwa 12, and Sindh 6 children have been left disabled by polio. Commonly the polio virus communicates from November upto May due to cold weather and in this specified period its ratio remains very low and cases report fewer, but this year, ironically, from January upto now [June] the number of cases has increased five folds.
Pakistan is such a country where the majority of citizens are unaware of citizens’ rights but a layer is occupying all resources and country’s major portion economy goes in the regard of defensive expenditure, like missiles testing and war-equipment purchasing have pushed this country’s people in darkness of illiteracy and ignorance. These things have caused very low growth of cognizant and people don’t seem to care much for their health and they are unenthusiastic in participation of polio eradication campaigns.
In Nigeria, fanatic notions have been encouraged and in Pakistan for keeping hegemony on neighboring states the Jihadists were used, and aftermath these elements have got as challenged to the writ of state and denied to vaccinate their areas’ children by frothing illogical and irrational debates, and that is the reason, FATA, The Federally Administered Tribal Areas, has 64 incapacitated children disabled by polio. The similar monk also exists is Balochistan’s Pashtun belt. They believe the polio vaccine is taboo and a conspiracy of US and other European countries to reduce the number of Muslims in world. They believe that the polio vaccine is the cause of infertility of women; such irrational thoughts are hampering the Pakistan to be a polio free state.
The extremist thoughts badly affected the polio campaigns in the country, mostly, the FATA and its adjacent areas, where many polio workers in Peshawar and other towns of KPK and in Karachi have lost their precious lives during performing their duties by fatal attacks of discussed extremists. These attacks on polio workers got shape of a challenge to law-enforcement agencies of state.
Currently, State’s central command has launched an operation “Zarb-e-Azb” in FATA for the elimination of militants, which caused evacuation of local population from the area. The war affected population has been shifted to settled areas of country and they are dubbed IDPs and strength of these is in million as well as some of them also flown across the border to Afghanistan. This displacement of people has provided a magnification of chance vaccinate caused region children and got them immunized from polio who are communicating the virus whether inside and outside the country of Pakistan.
Polio in Balochistan:
Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan area-wise, but the poorest in sectors of education and economics. Balochistan’s Pashtun religious elements create some problems in polio vaccination but Baloch moderate and progressive ever facilitated and welcomed polio teams in their localities. Presently, Balochistan is immunized from polio totally and luckily it is the sole province in entire country polio-free. The sustaining of this status to Balochistan is great challenge for it. Balochistan has to establish polio vaccination units on the transit points to other provinces. On the highways, railways and the IDPs who are migrating to other parts of country, similarly in Balochistan they are entering and creating hazardous environment for polio virus communication; hence this aspect is required vigilance to prevent the virus spread in the province.
In this regard the authorities concerned, without vaccination process, shouldn’t let the IDPs enter Balochistan. The parents also give drops to their children and cooperate with vaccination teams and must not miss any children from drops on this imperiled occasion. Balochistan is sole province that is polio-free since 18 months and here WHO and Government of Balochistan disbursing polio team workers in extra Rs.250 to each, the provincial government officials are monitoring personally the vaccination campaigns.
Challenges regarding Polio in Balochistan:
Low graded polio campaigns:
On district and union level due to no answerability, bad administration and insufficient teams of polio, challenges in Balochistan are against the eradication of virus totally.
Large scale migration of population:
Balochistan is province where large number of population migrates season to season to other provinces and neighboring country to Afghanistan. People migrate to Sindh, KPK and southern Afghanistan for sidestep from extreme weather and they live a nomadic life style. Average 15000 to 20000 children each month cross the Pak-Afghan border entrance “Bab-e-Dosti”.
Somehow the religious outlook is also akin to a hindrance that fundamental thinkers are misguided that imported polio vaccines are taboo or cause infertility to women. The Ghost of polio has gripped tightly to Pakistan and now here the governing bodies are also confused when WHO imposed travelling sanctions for tenure of three months on trial basis, although after vaccination process Pakistani citizens can travel abroad. Here it doesn’t seem that within three months Pakistan will be a polio-free country. In case of polio virus harboring the international world definitely will implement more tough sanctions, which will be more troublesome for Pakistanis.
Regarding the ground realities, it can be prognosticated that in a short-term of three months Pakistan will not be polio-free. During 65 years, from its creation, this has failed to provide clean drinking water to its citizen not talking of other rights and amenities, henceforward with such history no one can prognosticate for being Polio-Free State given the short span of three months, at least a far-fetched perception about Pakistan. And international world may cut-off relation or suspend air flight and world Health Organization recommends stern restrictions on it because these are unavoidable too, otherwise, polio virus will relocate, like it has transmitted to Syria, China and other countries get a drastic situation. The Pakistan’s topsy-turvy political structure, religious hysteria and corruption are impediments in the way of making the country polio free.
The writer can be reached: firstname.lastname@example.org http://www.basheerijbari. wordpress.com basheerijbani@twitter
Self-exiled Baloch nationalist leader Mir Harbayar Marri has said that an independent Balochistan will confront problems faced by countries like Angola and North Korea if powers of tribal nawabs and chiefs are not handed over to nationalists carrying out a separatist movement.
Criticizing his brothers Jangez and Mehran for vying to become nawab of the Marri tribe, he said in a statement sent to reporters here from London: “Appointing nawabs, tribal chieftains and tribal elders is part of a backward and anti-Baloch system introduced by Sandeman, a representative of British rulers in Balochistan, which has since been harming the Baloch liberation movement and interests of the Baloch people.”
He said it was the right and mandate of Baloch nationalist leaders and youths to decide matters relating to Balochistan because “they have been sacrificing their lives in the struggle for freedom”.
“The people claiming to have become nawab and chief of the Marri tribe, including my brothers Jangez Marri and Mehran Marri, are following the course adopted by parliamentarians from the Balochistan National Party and National Party who went to parliament instead of contributing to the liberation movement,” Mir Harbayar said.
He said the chiefs of the Mengal tribe had been pursuing politics to maintain their hold on the tribe instead of rendering sacrifices for the rights of the Baloch people.
“The nations that allow some persons to rule them as nawabs and tribal chieftains always remain backward and face anarchy. On the other hand, nations like Norway and Sweden that accepted changes have become developed and prosperous,” he said.
He said his late father Nawab Khair Bakhsh Marri embodied a school of thought and he struggled, faced difficulties and hardships and rendered sacrifices for a bright and prosperous future of the Baloch people.
“Not only are his children or tribe, but all Baloch people heirs of Nawab Khair Bakhsh Marri,” he said.
He said the Baloch people needed mature leaders and not nawabs and tribal chieftains if they wanted their identity to survive and to bring themselves on a par with civilized nations.
“We are not against the tribal system but against the system of nawab and tribal chieftain that was introduced by Mr Sandeman,” he said.
(Courtesy to Dawn)
Bolan Voice Report
The spokesman of Baloch Salvation Front for the alliance consisting of Baloch Watan Movement, Balochistan Independence Movement and Gohwar Baloch Movement in his issued statement has said that the contribution of Agha Abdul Kareem has been playing a vital role in the struggle for the freedom of Baloch nation.
In 1948, After the Declaration of Independence of the Baloch homeland and seeing the barbaric annexation after the subjugation of the Baloch land by the State, he stood against it and started sprawling knowledge of the struggle against the occupation. Furthermore, the spokesperson said Agha Abdul Karim Khan gave the show a new dimension to the freedom movement struggle to maintain historical continuity defensive struggle against the Pakistani state and vehemently emphasized this national measure.
In this national regard, he, manifestly, assumed utter responsibility upon his shoulders for the Baloch leadership and guidance duty and against the occupying State he along with his other ideological comrades spread awareness and enlightened his people by circulating as well as issuing revolutionary literature among his people. Moreover, he also speeded up the process of awakening the Baloch for it was the most crucial part of the national struggle. He struggled for a long-term ideological and revolutionary, in the true sense, strongly associates and attempted to come up with a camp. In the grand Atlas of independence thousands of freedom fighters struggled and accompanied him.
On the other hand, not only the state and their local puppets utilized military resources against them but cultivated hatred against him in the hearts of from his own people of the family in order to completely seizure him by using the simplest ways and tactics to crush their network.
In addition to that, Agha Abdul Kareem laid the foundation of such a movement which was not either an accidental type of insurgency or any other type of rebellion but it was just a firm stance against the occupying state for mere complete freedom, for this cause he was well-planned and determined on educational, scientific, diplomatic and organizational bases. Moreover, the spokesperson added that, amid the advocate of State of Kalat, Mohammad Ali Jinnah and to the Khan-of-kalat he said that the self-created and illegal agreement and pacts are totally contrary to the will of Baloch nation. And he further said, that “foisted slavery whether in the name of Muslim or non-Muslim is never accepted”.
The spokesperson further said, BSF pays greatly limitless tribute and obscene to the Baloch national leader, Agha Abdul Kareem for his first historical services and sacrifices made in the line of national struggle against the occupying State and said that with the true historical truth the Baloch struggle for the liberty will always be there and resistance against the injustice would be our natural duty, for it is the law of nature.
The spokesperson further added that in true sense after Agha Abdul Kareem Khan, Babo Nouroz Khan and martyred Safar Khan now Hair Biyar Marri, by following his ideology and thoughts, scrupulously with the national sentiments has constantly continued the struggle so far. Mir Hairbeyar Marri in current era has been taking forward the national struggle with the firm institutional, ideological and scientific bases, and he has kept in mind the past all experiments and further applied all new diplomatic and innovative ways of struggle with the progressive continuity in national leadership has been in the front line. That is why today from the State and much other thin game, against Hairbeyar Marri propagandas are being leveled excessively. With Gruhyt and regional politics by creating a hallmark and the State wants to conceal the Heroism of Hairbeyar and with delusions the State wants to disintegrate the movement going on currently.
By Durra Khan Baloch
The people of our country are facing grave repercussions because of suffocating democracy as well as manifold people are facing unpredictable consequences due to the confused leadership at the current juncture. What I ruminate robust democracy can bring certainty and hope in every corner of a country. And they can have candid approach to finish confusion, perplexity and uncertainty as we are well aware that there is high level of these.
Moreover, steep rise in price made pauper compelled to commit suicide and many poor are deeply troubled. In addition, hefty increase of things obligated them to join illicit activities which are really painful. No doubt there are numerous capable people; however there is no window of opportunity for them. Those areas which are in high intensity and conflict zone there people are questing for peace. There is no room left to doubt and it won’t be our erroneous belief if we say that trust worthy representatives can solve these problems or even curb such hurdles further.
The crux of the matter is that most of the educated masses are sadly ignored in spite of being in unique positions. What is more influential media is showing these troubles and blackness of the situations but what is more surprising is that sober actions are not being taken and people are left with no choice. In a nut shell I pledge to the government to have mus tered the courage and apparent reasons to get major breakthrough to resolve all problems then at least people will be joyous to live. Otherwise, those who are abiding in this country will face enormous harm and politicians will lose their image and credibility incessantly.
“Comrade Khair Bukhsh Mari was not just an individual but he is an ideology; And we cordially pay limitless thanks to the Baloch nation for making it possible for the desired burial of Comrade Khair Bukhsh in “Shu’dya-e-Kabirstan” among his other ideological comrades; Balochistan Students’ Organization, BSO-A”.
Bolan Voice Report
The central spokesperson of Balochistan Students’ Organization (Azad), BSO-A, said in one of his issued statements that the abrupt demise of veteran Baloch leader, Comrade Khair Bukhsh Marri, is a mourning for the entire Baloch nation, but, despite caring for the sentiments of Baloch nation at that critical juncture, the Pakistan forces kept his corpse in their custody and transferred his body to their mortuary room. And after doing so they started hatching conspiracies of burying his cadaver anonymously in Kohistan, area of Balochistan.
Having known their plan of burying his body there in Kohistan in anonymity. After talking to the other veteran Baloch leaders in Quetta, the members of Balochistan Students’ Organization, BSO-A, took swift steps to protest against this act.
In addition, BSO-A students called all the members and Baloch people from all walks and Baloch females and males gathered in a huge quantity in front of the Quetta press club at 9;00 o’clock of morning time. And we then arranged a protest rally marching from many routes of Quetta to the hockey ground at 10:00 o’clock, where the last prayers of Comrade Khair Bukhsh Marri were being offered, at the same moment the BSO-A students protested, seeing the protest many Baloch people who were gathered there joined the protest of BSO-A.
After our constant firm on protest to bury the cadaver of Comrade among his ideological companions in Shu’da-e-Kabristan instead of Kohistan-e-mari, Jangiz Marri along with the Pakistani forces announced that the Baloch masses are not letting them take the corpse of Baba Khair Bukhsh Marri, thus, the funeral and the prayers will take place in Hockey ground and his body will be buried in New-Kahan.
Furthermore, the spokesperson of Balochistan Students’ organization categorically paid admiration and thanks to the Baloch masses who made it possible to bury him where Comrade Khair Bukhsh Marri himself in his life desired to be buried among his ideological comrades. He further said, Comrade is always alive in our hearts and his left footsteps are always a guideline for the Baloch National Movement.
The Sunni militants of ISIS, Islamic state of Iraq and Syria became the world’s richest Jihadist group and the unforeseen future implications that might befall.
By Jameel Jansheer
Islamic state of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) is an unrecognized state and active jihadist militant group in Iraq and Syria. According to the statistics and the claims of the several leaders of this Islamic Jihadist organization that the American invasion of Iraq in 2003 during the presidential authority of George W. Bush forcefully provoked them to wage jihad against the United States of America and it is also said that the American military action further made it easy for them to recruit militants and eventually retook manipulation of the country.
Particularly, this Islamist Jihadist armed organization comprises and is supported by a heap of homegrown insurgent groups, including its predecessor organization, the Mujahideen Shura Council, al-Qaeda, Jaysh-al-Faitheen, Jund al-Sahaba, and in short many more supported it with the aim of establishing an Islamic State and its sovereignty. In addition, Its mission of the existence was to establish a caliphate in the Sunni majority regions of Iraq, later extending and sprawling this to include Syria. On the other side, In February 2014, after an eight-month span of power struggle, al-Qaeda cut all its ties with ISIS, Islamic State of Iraq and Syria.
In terms of attacks either on military or government targets, this group has taken responsibility for heaps of attacks that have slain thousands of Iraqi civilians. In early June 2014, following its large-scale offensives in Iraq, ISIS is reported to have seized control of most of Mosul, the second most populous city in Iraq, a large part of the surrounding Nineveh province, and the city of Fallujah. Moreover, according to the sources, ISIS has also taken control of Tikrit, the administrative center of the Salah ad Din Governorate, with the ultimate goal of capturing Baghdad, the Iraqi capital. ISIS was believed to have only 2,000–3,000 fighters up until the Mosul campaign, but during that campaign it became evident that this number was a gross underestimate. And now it is quadrupling its militants for recruitment is open to every Sunni Muslim who are bestowed up jihad responsibility in Islam.
The unforeseen future complications that might befall. Staggering is the fact that recently ISIS, Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, heavily armed Islamist militants flush with $450 million in stolen cash from a bank and became the world’s most richest jihadist group in terms of its finances, consequently, pushed toward Baghdad on Friday.
By dint of this huge amount of money it might quadruple its armaments, ammunition and other deathly weapons to use against the Iraqi people, government instillations, and military troops, thus, this could prove to be more dangerous as prior to some months it killed many innocent Iraqi civilians. Moreover, in line with the same mishaps having taken place, Mosul Mayor Athier Nujaifi told the media that “Al Qaeda-linked insurgents who overran large parts of the north of the country earlier this week also seized about $450 million during a bank heist.
He further said “this makes the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) the world’s richest terrorist group”. So, given the fact that now it holds the status of the world’s richest Islamist Jihadist group this might prove to be very much dangerous both for the civilized and peace-promoting western countries and the minorities and denominations within Iraq and Syria and other adjoining areas as well as those who have some affiliation with other denominational sects will markedly fall a victim to this Jihad sentimental group.
On other side, though being a Jihadist armed group running under the banner of Islam, the ISIS has taken a shameful act to steal the money of non-moslems to enhance its sustainability under the name of Islam and its sacred order for Jihad. In true terms, this jihadist group has transgressed all the Islamic limitations for appropriate Jihad and its misinterpretation led it to the rules against the jurisprudence of Islamic sovereignty. Though, In Islamic orders, Jihad is imputed to and it is incumbent upon every Sunni Muslim to execute, but to steal money to strengthen its number of weapons and other things of a real Islamist Jihadist movement, is not welcomed by Islam because for doing Jihad one has got to be mentally, physically and by soul pure and must refrain from the illegal activities or don’ts that are contrary to Islamic rules and regulations.
A research study regarding an international railway project linking Pakistan with China’s Xinjiang province through Azad Jammu and Kashmir has been commissioned by China, according to a Times of India and China Daily report.
The rail link funded primarily by China would connect Xinjiang’s western city Kashgar to the Gwadar deep sea port of Pakistan, said state-run China Daily while quoting the director of Xinjiang’s regional development and reform commission, Zhang Chunlin on the subject.
“The 1,800-km China-Pakistan railway is planned to also pass through Pakistan’s capital of Islamabad and Karachi,” Zhang had said at the two-day International Seminar on the Silk Road Economic Belt being held in Urumqi, Xinjiang’s capital.
Due to geo-strategic implications the project would be hard to proceed with, as it would be a requisite for the rail project to run through the Pamir Plateau and Karakoram Mountains. Although once completed it would emerge as one of the most strategically beneficial transportation infrastructures on the China-Pakistan economic corridor, opined Zhang.
“Although the cost of constructing the railway is expected to be high due to the hostile environment and complicated geographic conditions, the study of the project has already been started,” he added.
President Xi Jinping had also spoken in favour of rejuvenating conventional trade routes connecting China, Central Asia and Europe.
A multi-billion deal has already been signed to initiate work on an Economic Corridor linking Kashgar with the port city of Gwadar through AJK. It also implied revamping the already in place Karakoram road link despite the cynicism expressed by political analysts in China.
The project exhibits tremendous potential as it would enable China to run a port alongside Gulf of Oman which is deemed to be a hub for activities relating to oil tankers.
India however has objected to the project citing concerns that the said route would involve a disputed territory. Pakistan had given the operational key of the port city of Gwadar to Beijing back in 2013, a move deeply detested by India as it alleged it could provide a chance to China to monitor its port activities.
After the attack on Karachi Jinnah International Airport Pakistan is now dealing the militants with an iron hand by launching a ground operation in North Wiziristan.
Bolan Voice Report
The shocking attacks of Islamist militants on Jinnah International Airport in Karachi on 8 June 2014, approximately as according to media sources 10 militants armed with automatic weapons, a rocket launcher, suicide vests, and grenades entered through the old terminal for a planned attack but fortunately, given the number of the ASF security forces in the airport area, the militants were dealt with an iron hand and their plans at least resulted in dud at the hands of security forces. Soon after the attack, the Rangers arrived and cordoned off the airport area quickly. Firing and blasts continued for some hours and mourning started from the public side given the scheduled arrivals and departures of planes and their passengers in the airport area during the fatal attacks, from masses side some 36 people were killed, including all 10 attackers, and at least 18 were wounded.
Soon after the attack on Airport having taken place, resultantly, Pakistan has taken military measures by launching a ground operation in North Waziristan as the TTP claimed responsibility for the attack. So far as the proposed attackers are concerned so they were foreigners of Uzbek origin who belonged to the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU), an Al Qaeda-linked militant organization that works closely with TTP. According to TTP, it said that the attack was a joint operation they executed with the IMU, who independently admitted to having supplied personnel for the attack.
Now, given the fatal assault on the international airport of Pakistan, it culminated in Operation Zarb-e-Azb, a comprehensive Pakistan Armed Forces operation against militants in North Waziristan and now they are dealing them with an iron hand as an eye for an eye language.
On the other hand, in North Waziristan there are many people who have been displaced, according to the provided statistics the government has so far registered 435,429 Internally Displaced People (IDPs) affected due to the ongoing operation in North Waziristan with the help of the National Database Registration Authority (NADRA). Moreover, stating the government registered 35,381 families including 114,596 males, 137,301 females and 183,532 children, number of IDPs increasing with each passing day. And now there are facing also many problems as they are keeping fast in camps in the holy month of Ramadan and as the operation was launched on June 15, the military operation Zarb-e-Azb against militants in the troubled North Waziristan agency of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (Fata) that resulted in a temporary migration and relocation of the displaced persons from the area of operation to safer locations.
Moreover, adding that Consistent to the earlier instructions, the government assigned the task to the Ministry of States and Frontier Regions (SAFRON) to make necessary rehabilitation arrangement of IDPs. However, this time the government decided to engage the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) too in the process which is in line with the mandate of the organization. Upon instructions the NDMA now engaged with the ministry of SAFRON, Federally Administrative Tribal Areas Disaster Management Authority, Provincial Disaster Management Authority of Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa, Pakistan Army, Civil Administration and other partners to coordinate and implement the plan for efficient management of all IDPs’ issues.
The NDMA team, led by Member Operations NDMA, Brig Mirza Kamran Zia has already been deployed in district Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa to monitor and facilitate the present status of IDPs situation and ensure provision of effective and timely relief assistance to the IDPs within and outside camps. So far a total of 34,625 families have crossed over from North Waziristan areas of operation and have been registered in Bannu. About 1100 families have arrived in DI Khan and 480 in Lakki Marwat district.
The relief camps were immediately established at the onset of operation. The main IDPs camp has been established in BakaKhel, Union Council in district Bannu of KP. Unfortunately not many people have opted to live in the camp and the bulk preferred to live with their relatives and host communities as per past practice.
The team, along with senior civil and military officials, monitored IDPs camp management to ensure that people are facilitated with all necessary apparatus and arrangements. The relief camps have been provided with all necessary facilities including provision of shelter, health, hygiene, latrines, cooked food, electricity and mosque. Food and financial assistance is being rendered to the affected people at the time of registration at check points. The NADRA mobile registration points have been put in place at the check points too. Polio vaccination of entire displaced population and health checkup of those in need is also being ensured at check posts.
Furthermore, free transport has been arranged for daily evacuations to bring the IDPs to relief camps.
There are efforts to expand the camps and make additional arrangements to facilitate all those IDPs who wish to live and return in the camp. In this connection a field hospital is also being setup jointly by the army and civil administration to meet the additional demand due to influx of 45,000 IDPs in to the area. Food and cash distribution for the affected population is also being done in the area. The WFP has also established a food point in the area, with the approval of federal government and their assistance is being largely appreciated. The NDMA has handed over additional 2,000 tents to the FDMA for further distribution among the IDPs. All planning and execution for this humanitarian effort is being done jointly by the NDMA, FDMA, PDMA KP, Pakistan Army and civil administration. A formation of the Pakistan army has been tasked exclusively to support the civil administration to ensure smooth and efficient execution of this onerous task. The government, the armed forces and all the concerned departments and agencies as well as humanitarian partners are putting in their diligent efforts to mitigate the sufferings of displaced people.
Given the huge availability of many working organizations, the main crux and the problem of the IDPs is their basic facilities that should be ensured on quick basis given the currently going Ramadan month as they are currently facing many problems, on the other hand, the operation is going on and Air forces are also taking part in that it should be also greatly taken into account that the masses’ lives should be ensured to be kept secure from any casualties by the attacks either from the militants’ or military side given their current status as IDPs, therefore, it is very obligatory for the government to keep account of every current welfare organization to order as well as put pressure on them to work seriously for those IDPs because this time is one of critical juncture of our people.
By Ahmed Khan
In 80s’ era American CIA got muster criminals of the world in Pakistan and the FATA area was allocated to them for training base with sanctuary, too. The Arabs and Africans were sub-ordinated to Usama Bin Landin, who was also associated with CIA in early days of Jihad in Afghanistan.
The colonel Imam trained more than 80000 warriors to fight them against soviet. At that time the Islamic parties, like Jamal-e-Islami, Jamiat-F and others were also assisting America and Pakistani secret agencies to hire Mujahidin and recruited religious infuriated voluntaries. The said Islamic parties and orthodox decreed Afghan war as holy war “Jihad” against Soviet Union.
The time changes its facets. Soviet Union step-backed from Afghanistan due to defects in its political structure and granted autonomous to other states which were part of socialist federation of USSR. The Mujahidins occupied Afghanistan and were renamed with Taliban by approval of that time Prime Minister of Pakistan Ms. Benazir Bhutto.
The international situations turned its side and got averse to Taliban and former CIA personnel Usama Bin Ladin. When America changed position, so Pakistan also spontaneously became foe of Taliban ostensibly but in core the realities were some different on Pakistani side.
In 2002, America by help of NATO and Northern Alliance had overran on Afghanistan, eventually toppled the Taliban government in Kabul. At that occasion Pakistan had provided logistics and intelligence support the United States to win the Dollars and other hand secretly used Jamiat Ullema-e-Islam and Jamiat Islami to oppose US in region. When American forces invaded Afghanistan, then JUI-F blocked all road and rail channels in Balochistan. The Quetta was jammed by infuriated workers of discussed right wing party. Afterward the militant organizations have been carrying-out attacks on NATO supplying vehicles which are using the rout of Balochistan and KPK. The militant torched and robbed thousands of NATO containers but amazingly the culprits never were arrested and that is a mystery.
Recently, the American senior journalist after thorough research wrote a book “The Wrong Enemy”, in that she mentioned the Musharraf pushed America in the marsh of Afghanistan but secretly ever patronized the Islamic militants. The real enemy is Pakistan and US must recognize and stop all aid whether it is military or civil.
It’s amazing the Jamiat was an ally party of Musharraf that time ruler at National Assembly, but on the roads same party workers were protesting violently against NATO and America.
After 2006, the Baloch insurgency got intensified due to the assassination of eminent tribal leader Akbar Khan Bugti that catalyzed the Baloch insurgency and it has inflicted state machinery in great loss, so the Islamic elements got together and dubbed with ‘Pakistan Defa Council’, which held about three rallies in a month against NATO supply line but they were intimidating the Baloch in their statements and speeches to handful of people’s assembly. These elements were staunch supporter of Taliban in series of Islam.
Today situations totally turned in opposite direction that state doesn’t need these Taliban at all, and an operation “Zarb-e-Azb” has been launched to eliminate them. Here it is astonishing that Islamic parties and alliances are fully quite, there is no voice for Mujahidin and Taliban those were the hero of these Islamic inclined people.
This impels to think that discussed Islamic parties are being used by someone or their remote is with federation of Pakistan that on any advantageous period uses Islamic notions and in aversive situations by these Islamic parties declares the Mujahid or Taliban wrongful who were hero of yesterday. Same Islamic parties also mostly used to provoke the masses for fight or Jihad when federation is required on a time. If anyone defies the federation for the true spirit of Islam, probably they are deprived of seats and wealth, possible faces more dire consequences.
By Dr Naeem Baloch, Mastung
When exam arrives, students become extremely worried and make plans how to study, how to perform better and get good marks. Some students find exams so difficult that the phobia makes them sick.
LOVE YOUR STUDIES:
Attitude of a student contributes a lot in the examination. Negative attitude of a student towards education affects his academic performance in the examination badly while the regular and hardworking students make good in examination. So thinking the studies as boring, hard and dull will increase the problems in learning process. That is why we should love our studies the way we love Facebook, games etc.
GAME AND SPORTS:
Parents should supervise their school going children’s activities but it should be clear that excessive restrictions especially during exams affect the results of students and make them rebellious and dull. Students need breaks during studies to refresh themselves and it is possible through games and sports. So we should not eliminate our relaxing activities such as playing games and watching T.V programs from our daily schedule because these are as important as our studies.
SOME HELPFUL TIPS:
We should seek teacher’s advice on how to study in a better way for examinations
* Planning of Study Timings.
* Take exercise, walk and play game to get refreshed.
* Practice old question papers to give you an idea of the pattern followed by teachers
* Develop self-confidence with the thinking that nobody could do better than me but avoid over confidence as it may affect your future career.
SPECIAL TIPS ON EXAM DAY:
* Have a healthy breakfast
* Do the final revision of important topics
* Get engaged in positive self-talking
* Never revise at the last moment
IN EXAMINATION HALL:
* Organize everything you have i.e. pen, pencil etc.
* Plan out timings during examination
* Not to start the paper soon after getting it from examiner. Start the paper from the question you know the best. The best way to success is to face what comes our way and counter all difficulties with a smiling face. We will surely come out as winners.
There can be no two opinions about the veracity of the statement that the Modern Age is the age of science. Science undoubtedly has revolutionized the world. Everyday there are new inventions, may that be in medicine, electronics, space sciences, nuclear technology and so on. Everything that modern man is using in this contemporary age has been given to him by the scientific advancement. He cannot live without science even for a single day. Science has given eyes to the blind, ears to the deaf and limbs to the crippled. It has made man fly in the sky like birds, swim in the water like fish. It has achieved wonders and thus has brought about irreparable changes in the world. Science, however, is remarked both as a blessing as well as a curse. Apart from bringing uncountable blessings in the lives of human beings, it also has turned out to be course and has resulted into human sufferings which have now assumed horrible magnitudes and are beyond human control. It is said that modern civilization is a scientific civilization. It is true as far as the material aspects of civilization are concerned; man lives in great comfort today. He enjoys cinema, radio and television. He can talk with his friends thousands of miles away from by telephone. Science has increased human comfort and lessened human drudgery. He has no longer to travel on foot. He can travel comfortably without any fatigue in cars, air-conditioned trains, buses, etc. He has no longer to bear the hardships of weather. In summer, he can cool his house by electric cooler and in winter, get heat by electric heaters. Day and night make no difference to him, for night can turn into day by electric lights.
He does not work hard like his forefathers. He does not follow barbarous practice of having slaves. Science has given him slaves of a new kind, which do all work for him. Machines are the slaves of modern scientific civilization. These slaves do all the work for him while he himself lives like a lord. They cook his food for him and even serve it to him. They manufacture everything that he uses from morning till night. They plough fields for him, sow seeds and reap crops for him. Human pain and suffering have been lessened by science. Modern civilized man has not to suffer like his forefathers. Many diseases have been eliminated or have become curable, and surgeries can be performed without inflicting pain to the patients. Many wonderful drugs have been discovered and man’s life on this earth has become longer and happier. Man lives in comfort like the lord and master of nature. He has conquered even outer space, mastered weather and all other living creatures.
But there is another side also to this picture. Science affects only the material aspects and makes man materialistic. Radio, television, cinema and costly furniture and dresses are all symbols of this artificial civilization. But civilization has material as well as spiritual elements. Science helps only the growth of the material aspects and has no influence on the spiritual element. Science has made man morally bankrupt. It has degraded him. He is no longer inspired by noble ideas. He thinks only of the body and not the soul. Science has created distance between man and religion. He has lost faith in God. He is no longer truth-loving and self-sacrificing. In order to satisfy his wants and desires, he uses dishonest means. By hook or by crook, he wants to possess the luxuries provided to him by science. No moral considerations influence his actions or his thoughts.
Art and literature are also essential aspects of civilization, but science does nothing to promote them. Rather it has an adverse effect on the growth of art. There is inherent opposition between art and science. Science is utility, observation and experiment, reason and good sense, while art is the worship of beauty. It is an inspiration. Science has killed the artistic sense of man and has made him a worshipper of worldly wealth. He now dissects and kills objects of nature instead of enjoying their beauty. To quote from poet William Wordsworth, man now murders to dissect, and perhaps he would botanize even on his mother’s grave. His emotions and passions have all dried up and he has become a monster guided by reason alone.
No doubt science has given man the powers used to be attributed to the mythological gods alone, but it has not increased his wisdom or his morality. It has given him weapons. It has given him machines, but machines are now becoming his masters. Man today does not know when to save and when to kill. He has got the atomic energy but he does not know how to use it for his own good and wellbeing. In this way, science has brought human civilization to the verge of disaster.
Much has been said and talked about the importance of science and technology. However, as the saying goes, every rose has its thorns. Science also has added to the human sufferings owing to the adverse impacts it has on the environment. Environmental issues are the biggest concerns the planet earth is facing, let that be in the form of global warming, floods, earthquakes, hurricanes etc. Moreover, no doubt, medical science is no less than a blessing to mankind. Medicines produced all over the world are perceived to be a foolproof cure to a person’s illness. However, there is some negativity associated with medical science too. Today, excessive consumption of drugs can lead to death. Moreover, incorrect dosage may lead to fatal maladies. Where medical science has advanced to an unbelievable extent, it carries with itself perils of all kinds, and just a slight ignorance may prove to be a matter of life and death.
Technology has provided ease of all kinds to man. However, it has made us too busy to even see our loved ones in person. Technology might have made our daily life easier, but it has rendered health issues as well. Tremendous reliance and dependence on electronic gadgets, appliances, and most importantly, computer technology has made human life so lethargic that people are experiencing old age much before they actually grow old. With almost zero physical activity, science might have proved its mettle as an amazingly efficient service to its users, but has got the world adversely hooked to it! Technology can actually harm society if one becomes addict. Competition between companies or even cities can sometimes make our lives even worse. When a city builds more roads to attract tourists, the result is more traffic load. Even things we take for granted such as the automobile have negative effect on us. Because the automobiles cause pollution and that can surely harm us slowly. Technology is making one so busy that he can’t even find time to spend with our closed ones. It would be surprising to know that people are in contact through chat and online messaging though they are in same city, because they think it’s faster and effective but they forget that meeting personally can never replace online chatting.
There is no doubt that modern technology is the biggest revolution ever happened to the planet but it is tremendously effected human social activities and made him slave. So we must not use the modern technology to agonize, human being and be used philanthropically.
By Haq Nawaz Baloch, Pasni
In the 20th century, the Muslim world embraced modernity by accepting the concept of Nation-state system, which emerged in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. The secular nationalist’s movements fought for the right of self-determination and got independence from the colonial powers. But in 21st century, the extremist groups have rejected the concept of nation state and promoted the culture of Jihad in ideological ground. Jihadi mindset negatives the concept of modernity. Moreover in Muslim world, the madaris have played an important role in producing Islamic scholars and clerics. However, now the Madaris have become a new breeding ground for radical Islamist militants. Religious fatwa further added the sense of hatred for minorities. Less uneducated clerics openly accused and blamed any religious minorities; moreover, they misinterpret the verses of holy Quran, as the result, hatred and Jealousies feelings are occurring in every nook and corner of country. Around 10 to 15 percent of the madaris are affiliated with extremist religious outfits, which are totally bigotry kinds of religious education.
These madaris have distorted view of Islam where hatred is permissible.
After the creation of Pakistan, the number of madaris kept growing at a slow pace without any state patronage in the first three decades. During 1980s madaris system underwent a complete change. The war in Afghanistan brought from across the border millions of refugees and the radicals of the Jihadi movement. Thousands of new madaris were formed, and supported by foreign donations from rich individuals and Islamic charities, mainly from Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States.
The exact number of madaris in Pakistan is unknown. However, the rough estimate ranges from 45,000. With the passage of time, the number of madris has increased. It is a fact that the rise of madaris in Pakistan not only has threatened the social, cultural, economic and political life of the country, but also weakened the Pakistani state. Due to the religious extremism, educational system of Pakistan has come to the brink of failure. Pakistan spends very little amount of its Gross National Product (GNP) on education. Government runs schools are generally horrendous. They often lack of teachers, water, electricity, latrine, and boundary and even though roof.
On the country, the rich elite class of Pakistan sends their children in expensive private schools. The poor can’t afford the private schools fees and send their children to madris which provide food, clothing and even some their children. Thus for the lower classes and refuge population, the madaris have become attractive institutions.
The madris were established in large number by Zia regime for two reasons, to win support from the religious cleric and broaden his political base for recruiting Mujahideen to wage war in Afghanistan and also gain the support of religious parties. Moreover, the dictators played a destructive role to bring religion into politics. They have used Islam for their ultimate political goals. For instance, Ayub Khan‘s modernist Islam, Zia’s theocratic Islam and Musharaf’s liberal Islam has been the continuation of the same policy prepared by the state since its formation. However, the drastic change came when Zia came to power in 1977. Religious groups supported Zia and provided him an Ideological framework, based on a particular brand of an Islamic system.
The wave of religious extremism has erupted, after the 9/11 incident in 2001. In this way particular groups whom used religion as a recognized tools against minorities as well as many sects of Islam, no doubt, these groups are directly and indirectly are supported by foreign states fought proxy war in Afghanistan, due to difference of religious Ideology. Now this war is directly fighting in Pakistan. The killing of Shia, particularly Hazara community is under a severe barbarism in this religious war in Quetta, Balochistan.
Thousand, have been killed by suicide attacks and millions have been migrated across the country. Another shocking reality is the opinion adopted by the orthodox religious scholars whom issued Fatwa against religious minorities and other sects of Islam. These actions of Ulemas diverges the perception of general mass which caused of hatred against other sects of Islam. Now, it makes high responsibility of federal as well as provincial government to create such atmosphere which would bring religious harmony in entire country. The need of hour is to reject the culture of “Religious extremism” and pave the way for a broad based consensus among various sects and religious minorities. If this fire would not be extinguished, it completely burns all the fabric of society.
Prophet (PBUH) categorically said that “All Muslims are brother and shouldn’t make any division amongst themselves in sect, creed and color.”
Another place Allah says in Baqarah, 190, “Fight in the cause of Allah though who fight you, but don’t transgress limit Allah love not transgressors limits.”
It is proudly said that today’s youngsters are tomorrow’s builders. Youth all over the world through history, has been a revolutionary force. It is the precious asset of a nation that can revive a nation going through hard time. Youth of a nation can do wonders if availed, trained, educated and informed in an optimum fashion but now-a-days the youngsters are indulged in many bad things. They are affected by various bad habits; such as stealing, smoking, drinking wine, being dishonest, not obeying the parents and many more. These young people spend major part of their time in vulgar activities and their hot topics of discussion are movies, songs, video games and so on.
In the same way today’s youngsters do not obey their parents nor do they take them seriously. This is a big issue of youngsters as they do not listen to their parents, and what I believe, this is the first step to go towards the ways. Furthermore, if we talk about boys, at least 1/3 of the young boys are drug addicts. The alarming situation we can see in our society that drugs are available every area. Firstly, the youngsters use drugs as fashion as they see the others using drugs, but later on they become addicted to it and waste their health, wealth and innocent lives.
The truth is, due to the today’s young generations, the parents are getting a lot of tension and they are suffering from lots of diseases; such as, high blood pressure, desperation, diabetes and many more. Sometimes, parents think a lot about their children and as a result they get heart diseases. On the other hand, the girls are also not better than the boys in putting the parents in trouble. They do not help their mothers in doing home chores, they do not study properly, and they are always sitting in front of TV or busy with their mobiles. The young girls smoke Hubble bubble proudly and thinking that this is symbol of being moderate, but, sad to say that these ways are harming themselves dangerously. Our talented young girls have adopted double standards as they always try to follow the foreign culture while living in a society where traditional norms are completely against that foreign culture.
We can find the youngsters saying that their parents are burdens on them since they do not allow them to do everything. In fact, they do not know the importance of them. If they knew, they would not commit certain mistakes.
Most of the population comprises the youth, it is necessary for them to keep contributing for the betterment and progress of the society like they have before. The youth is one of the biggest assets of the country and they must be fully utilized, without exposing them to any harm simultaneously. Our society will grow if the youngsters realize their responsibilities and work accordingly by leaving their vain activities behind and act for the progress of our area.