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Axact, which has its headquarters in Karachi, Pakistan, ostensibly operates as a software company. CreditSara Farid for The New York Times
By Declain Walsh
Their websites, glossy and assured, offer online degrees in dozens of disciplines, like nursing and civil engineering. There are glowing endorsements on the CNN iReport website, enthusiastic video testimonials, and State Department authentication certificates bearing the signature of Secretary of State John Kerry.
“We host one of the most renowned faculty in the world,” boasts a woman introduced in one promotional video as the head of a law school. “Come be a part of Newford University to soar the sky of excellence.”
Yet on closer examination, this picture shimmers like a mirage. The news reports are fabricated. The professors are paid actors. The university campuses exist only as stock photos on computer servers. The degrees have no true accreditation
In fact, very little in this virtual academic realm, appearing to span at least 370 websites, is real — except for the tens of millions of dollars in estimated revenue it gleans each year from many thousands of people around the world, all paid to a secretive Pakistani software company.
Axact makes tens of millions of dollars annually by offering diplomas and degrees online through hundreds of fictitious schools. Fake accreditation bodies and testimonials lend the schools an air of credibility. But when customers call, they are talking to Axact sales clerks in Karachi.
That company, Axact, operates from the port city of Karachi, where it employs over 2,000 people and calls itself Pakistan’s largest software exporter, with Silicon Valley-style employee perks like a swimming pool and yacht.
Axact does sell some software applications. But according to former insiders, company records and a detailed analysis of its websites, Axact’s main business has been to take the centuries-old scam of selling fake academic degrees and turn it into an Internet-era scheme on a global scale.
As interest in online education is booming, the company is aggressively positioning its school and portal websites to appear prominently in online searches, luring in potential international customers.
At Axact’s headquarters, former employees say, telephone sales agents work in shifts around the clock. Sometimes they cater to customers who clearly understand that they are buying a shady instant degree for money. But often the agents manipulate those seeking a real education, pushing them to enroll for coursework that never materializes, or assuring them that their life experiences are enough to earn them a diploma.
To boost profits, the sales agents often follow up with elaborate ruses, including impersonating American government officials, to persuade customers to buy expensive certifications or authentication documents.
Revenues, estimated by former employees and fraud experts at several million dollars per month, are cycled through a network of offshore companies. All the while, Axact’s role as the owner of this fake education empire remains obscured by proxy Internet services, combative legal tactics and a chronic lack of regulation in Pakistan.
“Customers think it’s a university, but it’s not,” said Yasir Jamshaid, a quality control official who left Axact in October. “It’s all about the money.”
Axact’s response to repeated requests for interviews over the past week, and to a list of detailed questions submitted to its leadership on Thursday, was a letter from its lawyers to The New York Times on Saturday. In the letter, it issued a blanket denial, accusing a Times reporter of “coming to our client with half-cooked stories and conspiracy theories.”
After the initial publication of this article, Axact posted a public responseon its website, saying it would seek legal action. The statement begins, “Axact condemns this story as baseless, substandard, maligning, defamatory, and based on false accusations and merely a figment of imagination published without taking the company’s point of view.”
Also after publication, some of the testimonial videos and specific website contents cited in this article were taken down without explanation.
In an interview in November 2013 about Pakistan’s media sector, Axact’s founder and chief executive, Shoaib Ahmed Shaikh, described Axact as an “I.T. and I.T. network services company” that serves small and medium-sized businesses. “On a daily basis we make thousands of projects. There’s a long client list,” he said, but declined to name those clients.
The accounts by former employees are supported by internal company records and court documents reviewed by The New York Times. The Times also analyzed more than 370 websites — including school sites, but also a supporting body of search portals, fake accreditation bodies, recruitment agencies, language schools and even a law firm — that bear Axact’s digital fingerprints.
In academia, diploma mills have long been seen as a nuisance. But the proliferation of Internet-based degree schemes has raised concerns about their possible use in immigration fraud, and about dangers they may pose to public safety and legal systems. In 2007, for example, a British court jailed Gene Morrison, a fake police criminologist who claimed to have degree certificates from the Axact-owned Rochville University, among other places.
Little of this is known in Pakistan, where Axact has dodged questions about its diploma business and has portrayed itself as a roaring success and model corporate citizen.
A screengrab taken from the website Columbiana University. This and other Axact sites have toll-free American contact numbers and calculatedly familiar-sounding names.
“Winning and caring” is the motto of Mr. Shaikh, who claims to donate 65 percent of Axact’s revenues to charity, and last year announced plans for a program to educate 10 million Pakistani children by 2019.
More immediately, he is working to become Pakistan’s most influential media mogul. For almost two years now, Axact has been building a broadcast studio and aggressively recruiting prominent journalists for Bol, a television and newspaper group scheduled to start this year.
Just how this ambitious venture is being funded is a subject of considerable speculation in Pakistan. Axact has filed several pending lawsuits, and Mr. Shaikh has issued vigorous public denials, to reject accusations by media competitors that the company is being supported by the Pakistani military or organized crime. What is clear, given the scope of Axact’s diploma operation, is that fake degrees are likely providing financial fuel for the new media business.
“Hands down, this is probably the largest operation we’ve ever seen,” said Allen Ezell, a retired F.B.I. agent and author of a book on diploma millswho has been investigating Axact. “It’s a breathtaking scam.”
Building a Web
At first glance, Axact’s universities and high schools are linked only by superficial similarities: slick websites, toll-free American contact numbers and calculatedly familiar-sounding names, like Barkley, Columbiana and Mount Lincoln.
But other clues signal common ownership. Many sites link to the same fictitious accreditation bodies and have identical graphics, such as a floating green window with an image of a headset-wearing woman who invites customers to chat.
There are technical commonalities, too: identical blocks of customized coding, and the fact that a vast majority route their traffic through two computer servers run by companies registered in Cyprus and Latvia.
Five former employees confirmed many of these sites as in-house creations of Axact, where executives treat the online schools as lucrative brands to be meticulously created and forcefully marketed, frequently through deception.
The professors and bubbly students in promotional videos are actors, according to former employees, and some of the stand-ins feature repeatedly in ads for different schools.
The sources described how employees would plant fictitious reports about Axact universities on iReport, a section of the CNN website for citizen journalism. Although CNN stresses that it has not verified the reports, Axact uses the CNN logo as a publicity tool on many of its sites.
Social media adds a further patina of legitimacy. LinkedIn contains profiles for purported faculty members of Axact universities, like Christina Gardener, described as a senior consultant at Hillford University and a former vice president at Southwestern Energy, a publicly listed company in Houston. In an email, a Southwestern spokeswoman said the company had no record of an employee with that name.
The heart of Axact’s business, however, is the sales team — young and well-educated Pakistanis, fluent in English or Arabic, who work the phones with customers who have been drawn in by the websites. They offer everything from high school diplomas for about $350, to doctoral degrees for $4,000 and above.
“It’s a very sales-oriented business,” said a former employee who, like several others, spoke on the condition of anonymity because he feared legal action by Axact.
Axact employees often follow up aggressively with previous customers, pushing them to buy more. Some pose as American officials, badgering clients to spend thousands of dollars on State Department authentication letters. Payments are funneled through offshore firms.
A new customer is just the start. To meet their monthly targets, Axact sales agents are schooled in tough tactics known as upselling, according to former employees. Sometimes they cold-call prospective students, pretending to be corporate recruitment agents with a lucrative job offer — but only if the student buys an online course.
A more lucrative form of upselling involves impersonating American government officials who wheedle or bully customers into buying State Department authentication certificates signed by Secretary Kerry.
Such certificates, which help a degree to be recognized abroad, can be lawfully purchased in the United States for less than $100. But in Middle Eastern countries, Axact officials sell the documents — some of them forged, others secured under false pretenses — for thousands of dollars each.
“They would threaten the customers, telling them that their degrees would be useless if they didn’t pay up,” said a former sales agent who left Axact in 2013.
Axact tailors its websites to appeal to customers in its principal markets, including the United States and oil-rich Persian Gulf countries. One Saudi man spent over $400,000 on fake degrees and associated certificates, said Mr. Jamshaid, the former employee.
Usually the sums are less startling, but still substantial.
One Egyptian man paid $12,000 last year for a doctorate in engineering technology
from Nixon University and a certificate signed by Mr. Kerry. He acknowledged breaking ethical boundaries: His professional background was in advertising, he said in a phone interview, speaking on the condition of anonymity to avoid potential legal trouble.
But he was certain the documents were real. “I really thought this was coming from America,” he said. “It had so many foreigner stamps. It was so impressive.”
Many customers of degree operations, hoping to secure a promotion or pad their résumé, are clearly aware that they are buying the educational equivalent of a knockoff Rolex. Some have been caught.
In the United States, one federal prosecution in 2008 revealed that 350 federal employees, including officials at the departments of State and Justice, held qualifications from a non-Axact-related diploma mill operation based in Washington State.
Some Axact-owned school websites have previously made the news as being fraudulent, though without the company’s ownership role being discovered. In 2013, for instance, Drew Johansen, a former Olympic swim coach, was identified in a news report as a graduate of Axact’s bogus Rochville University.
The effects have sometimes been deeply disruptive. In Britain, the police had to re-examine 700 cases that Mr. Morrison, the falsely credentialed police criminologist and Rochville graduate, had worked on. “It looked easier than going to a real university,” Mr. Morrison said during his 2007 trial.
In the Middle East, Axact has sold aeronautical degrees to airline employees, and medical degrees to hospital workers. One nurse at a large hospital in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, admitted to spending $60,000 on an Axact-issued medical degree to secure a promotion.
But there is also evidence that many Axact customers are dupes, lured by the promise of a real online education.
Elizabeth Lauber, a bakery worker from Bay City, Mich., had been home-schooled, but needed a high school diploma to enroll in college. In 2006, she called Belford High School, which had her pay $249 and take a 20-question knowledge test online.
Weeks later, while waiting for the promised coursework, Ms. Lauber was surprised to receive a diploma in the mail. But when she tried to use the certificate at a local college, an official said it was useless. “I was so angry,” she said by phone.
Last May, Mohan, a junior accountant at a construction firm in Abu Dhabi, paid $3,300 for what he believed was going to be an 18-month online master’s program in business administration at the Axact-owned Grant Town University.
A sales agent assured Mohan, a 39-year-old Indian citizen who asked to be identified only by part of his name, of a quality education. Instead, he received a cheap tablet computer in the mail — it featured a school logo but no education applications or coursework — followed by a series of insistent demands for more money.
When a phone caller who identified himself as an American Embassy official railed at Mohan for his lack of an English-language qualification, he agreed to pay $7,500 to the Global Institute of English Language Training Certification, an Axact-run website.
In a second call weeks later, the man pressed Mohan to buy a State Department authentication certificate signed by Mr. Kerry. Mohan charged $7,500 more to his credit card.
Then in September a different man called, this time claiming to represent the United Arab Emirates government. If Mohan failed to legalize his degree locally, the man warned, he faced possible deportation. Panicking, Mohan spoke to his sales agent at Axact and agreed to pay $18,000 in installments.
By October, he was $30,000 in debt and sinking into depression. He had stopped sending money to his parents in India, and hid his worries from his wife, who had just given birth.
“She kept asking why I was so tense,” said Mohan during a recent interview near his home in Abu Dhabi. “But I couldn’t say it to anyone.”
Chasing Bill Gates
In Pakistan, Mr. Shaikh, Axact’s chief executive, portrays himself as a self-made tycoon of sweeping ambition with a passion for charity.
Growing up in a one-room house, he said in a speech posted on the company’s website, his goal was to become “the richest man on the planet, even richer than Bill Gates.” At gala company events he describes Axact, which he founded in 1997, as a global software leader. His corporate logo — a circular design with a soaring eagle — bears a striking resemblance to the American presidential seal.
Unusual for a software entrepreneur, Mr. Shaikh does not habitually use email or a cellphone, said several people recruited to his new station, Bol.
Barkley University claims that its degrees are recognized all over the world.
But his ambition is undimmed: Last year he announced plans for Gal Axact, a futuristic headquarters building with its own monorail system and space for 20,000 employees. His philanthropic vision, meanwhile, has a populist streak that resonates with many Pakistanis’ frustrations with their government.
As well as promising to educate 10 million children, Mr. Shaikh last year started a project to help resolve small civil disputes — a pointed snub to the country’s sclerotic justice system — and vowed to pump billions of dollars into Pakistan’s economy.
“There is no power in the universe that can prevent us from realizing this dream,” he declared in the speech.
But some employees, despite the good salaries and perks they enjoyed, became disillusioned by the true nature of Axact’s business.
During three months working in the internal audit department last year, monitoring customer phone calls, Mr. Jamshaid grew dismayed by what he heard: customers being cajoled into spending tens of thousands of dollars, and tearful demands for refunds that were refused.
“I had a gut feeling that it was not right,” he said.
In October, Mr. Jamshaid quit Axact and moved to the United Arab Emirates, taking with him internal records of 22 individual customer payments totaling over $600,000.
Mr. Jamshaid has since contacted most of those customers, offering to use his knowledge of Axact’s internal protocols to obtain refunds. Several spurned his approach, seeing it as a fresh effort to defraud them. But a few, including Mohan, accepted his offer.
After weeks of fraught negotiations, Axact refunded Mohan $31,300 last fall.
The Indian accountant found some satisfaction, but mostly felt chastened and embarrassed.
“I was a fool,” he said, shaking his head. “It could have ruined me.”
Deception and Threats
Axact’s role in the diploma mill industry was nearly exposed in 2009 when an American woman in Michigan, angry that her online high school diploma had proved useless, sued two Axact-owned websites, Belford High School and Belford University.
The case quickly expanded into a class-action lawsuit with an estimated 30,000 American claimants. Their lawyer, Thomas H. Howlett, said in an interview that he found “hundreds of stories of people who have been genuinely tricked,” including Ms. Lauber, who joined the suit after it was established.
A broadcast studio at Bol, a television and newspaper group owned by Axact that is scheduled to start this year. CreditSara Farid for The New York Times
But instead of Axact, the defendant who stepped forward was Salem Kureshi, a Pakistani who claimed to be running the websites from his apartment. Over three years of hearings, his only appearance was in a video deposition from a dimly lit room in Karachi, during which he was barely identifiable. An associate who also testified by video, under the name “John Smith,” wore sunglasses.
Mr. Kureshi’s legal fees of over $400,000 were paid to his American lawyers through cash transfers from different currency exchange stores in Dubai, court documents show. Recently a reporter was unable to find his given address in Karachi.
“We were dealing with an elusive and illusory defendant,” said Mr. Howlett, the lawyer for the plaintiffs.
In his testimony, Mr. Kureshi denied any links to Axact, even though mailboxes operated by the Belford schools listed the company’s headquarters as their forwarding address.
The lawsuit ended in 2012 when a federal judge ordered Mr. Kureshi and Belford to pay $22.7 million in damages. None of the damages have been paid, Mr. Howlett said.
Today, Belford is still open for business, using a slightly different website address. Former Axact employees say that during their inductions into the company, the two schools were held out as prized brands.
Axact does have regular software activities, mainly in website design and smartphone applications, former employees say. Another business unit, employing about 100 people, writes term papers on demand for college students.
But the employees say those units are outstripped by its diploma business, which as far back as 2006 was already earning Axact around $4,000 a day, according to a former software engineer who helped build several sites. Current revenues are at least 30 times higher, by several estimates, and are funneled through companies registered in places like Dubai, Belize and the British Virgin Islands.
Axact has brandished legal threats to dissuade reporters, rivals and critics. Under pressure from Axact, a major British paper, The Mail on Sunday, withdrew an article from the Internet in 2006. Later, using an apparently fictitious law firm, the company faced down a consumer rights group in Botswana that had criticized Axact-run Headway University.
It has also petitioned a court in the United States, bringing a lawsuit in 2007 against an American company that is a competitor in the essay-writing business, Student Network Resources, and that had called Axact a “foreign scam site.” The American company countersued and was awarded $700,000, but no damages have been paid, the company’s lawyer said.
In his interview with The New York Times in 2013, Axact’s chief executive, Mr. Shaikh, acknowledged that the company had faced criticism in the media and on the Internet in Britain, the United States and Pakistan, and noted that Axact had frequently issued a robust legal response.
“We have picked up everything, we have gone to the courts,” he said. “Lies cannot flourish like that.”
Mr. Shaikh said that the money for Axact’s new media venture, Bol, would “come from our own funds.”
With so much money at stake, and such considerable effort to shield its interests, one mystery is why Axact is ready to risk it all on a high-profile foray into the media business. Bol has already caused a stir in Pakistan by poaching star talent from rival organizations, often by offering unusually high salaries.
Mr. Shaikh says he is motivated by patriotism: Bol will “show the positive and accurate image of Pakistan,” he said last year. He may also be betting that the new operation will buy him influence and political sway.
In any event, Axact’s business model faces few threats within Pakistan, where it does not promote its degrees.
When reporters for The Times contacted 12 Axact-run education websites on Friday, asking about their relationship to Axact and the Karachi office, sales representatives variously claimed to be based in the United States, denied any connection to Axact or hung up immediately.
“This is a university, my friend,” said one representative when asked about Axact. “I have no idea what you’re talking about.”
Griffin Palmer and Kimiko de Freytas-Tamura contributed reporting.
(Courtesy to New York Times)
Police have sealed off their offices in Islamabad and foreign staff given 15 days to leave the country.
Save the Children said it “strongly objected” to the action.
Pakistan has previously linked the charity to the fake vaccination program used by the CIA to track down Osama Bin Laden.
The charity has always denied being involved with the CIA or Pakistani doctor Shakil Afridi, who carried out the program.
The charity has had no foreign staff in the country for the past 18 months in response to the accusations.
It now has 1,200 Pakistani staff working on projects in health, education and food.
Speaking after the charity was shut; Pakistan Interior Minister Chaudry Nisar Ali Khan said that NGO’s were operating beyond their remit with backing from US, Israel and India.
“Local NGOs that use foreign help and foreign funding to implement a foreign agenda in Pakistan should be scared. We will not allow them to work here whatever connections they enjoy, regardless of the outcry,” he said in a live television broadcast.
Save the Children, which has operations all over the world, has worked in Pakistan for more than 30 years.
No government explanation
The Pakistani government has not given a formal announcement explaining the decision.
But one official told the AFP news agency: “Their activities were being monitored since a long time. They were doing something which was against Pakistan’s interest.”
A police official said that the charity’s phone calls and offices had been placed under surveillance. Speaking to the Reuters news agency, he added that the charity’s activities were “very suspicious”.
Condemning the move, Save the Children said it was “raising our serious concerns at the highest levels”, adding that its workers were all Pakistani nationals.
A Save the Children official told Reuters that the Pakistan government had been stopping aid shipments entering the country, “blocking aid to millions of children and their families”.
It comes after the Pakistani government announced it was tightening the rules for NGOs, revoking several of their licenses.
The BBC understands that one of those NGO’s, the Norwegian Refugee Council, has ceased all operations in Pakistan as its license has not yet been renewed.
(Courtesy to BBC-World)
The analysts commented about incident that Non-Government Organizations (NGO’s) reported the Pakistani Nuclear Tests conducted on 28th May 1998 radiation fallouts which irked Pakistani authorities and they halted operation of mentioned foreigner organizations.
By Ahmed Khan
Human when live alone or without society so it was omitted sharing quality and interactions. Anthropologists say, human is a social animal and live in society with convenient by inter-society interactions. Society developed shape is state which presently is triggering persecutions and exploitation of common citizens by thrust of capitalism.
Presently state exists with double-facet in the world. If we review the European states those are democratic
or to same extent are social democratic. Karl Marx in communist theory forecasted for single state on this globe but for the barter of commodities prescribed for formation of regional committees. The European Union has materialized the dream of Marx to some extent. In European, countries are but without borders restriction, and they also opted single currency for trade in those countries and religion is not business of state but is part of private life. Thus, there’s people are leading some prosperous lives, though human have to move to more developments and civilized destine.
The Asian and African countries turned into peoples’ blood smocking firm, in these continents, countries are controlled by bourgeois and this class is looting human ruthlessly.
Presently, in Myanmar, the tool of religion is being used for massacre of people, in this country, the ethnic of Rohingya is persecuted by Buddhists, even Buddhism is considered most peaceful one the religious. The monks of Buddhism don’t wear shoes to squeeze any living but now they are slaughtering humans like butchers. The main reason behind the rampage is uneven economy and political injustices. The China backed authoritative government is totally imprudent to give protection the Rohingya people. Thousands Rohingyas have been killed and millions fled to other countries for saving lives. Those tyrannized people by human smuggler in yachts travel to Malaysia and Indonesia. Many of these helpless peopled died due to starvation and many were left on shores in desolated areas where they died due to hunger and thrust.
The news appeared in international media informs that Wang Kelein is an unassuming settlement but it has been thrust into the global spot light after the discovery in nearly jungle of dozen of secret camps used by people smugglers and nearly 140 grave sites.
The area police informed some of those graves contain multiple bodies raising the terrible prospect of hundreds of unexplained death. Malaysian authorities began the grim task of exhumation.
The camp appears to be part of a complex of bases stretching into Thailand on what had been a well-established route smuggling mostly Rohingya people from Burma [Mynmar] and Bangladesh. But the trade has been in chaos since early May, when Thailand’s authorities launched a crackdown after the discovery of mass grave on their side of border.
Thousands of migrants headed for Thailand started landing elsewhere in South-East Asia. And the smuggler fled their jungle hideouts, migrants were spotted in Wang Kelien.
A citizen talking to media said she had seen several migrant, whom she believed to be Rohingya, and heard stories about many others, including that they would go to nearby Mosque to ask for help.
Other echoed her story. Another said she had spotted a Bangladeshi migrant wandering in the area and knocking on her neighbor’s door.
“It is very sad. We have been hearing these stories, but we cannot do much” said the women, who declined to give her name. “Could only after food, clean clothes, but we have to call them and they will be taking away by the police after that,”
The Asian nations have been struggling with the growing waves of desperate migrant who are landing on the shores of Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand, in the past few weeks, at least 3,000 people have washed ashore or been rescues by fishermen and several thousand more are believed to still be at sea after smugglers abandoned boats after a regional crackdown.
Some are Bangladeshi hoping to find jobs abroad. But many are Rohingya ethnic who have been drove out by predominantly Buddhist in Myanmar a supported state of dictatorship which is reliant on so called socialist state of China. The Rohingya are denied basic rights and citizenship even living in country about a century but they are confined in camps, and their number is above than one million in country of Myanmar. The injustices and tyrannies compelled humans to venture on grievous journey for solace and a better life.
Similar to this region, the African also got chagrined from uneven distribution in economy and distinguished applying of laws on citizens by criteria of poor and rich. Thousands of people due to neoliberalism take risk of life and by human smugglers voyage in boats to Europe, Italy and other countries. During current year, hundreds families lost lives without truing the dream of prosperous and hunger free life.
In last month, hundreds people were stranded in European seas of Canada, Italy, Greece and other countries but authorities were not allowing them to enter in their country’s area. Among the troubled people, children and women were also including.
In Asian countries, a large number of poor from Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan travel to Middle-East oil rich countries and Europe through human smugglers.
Pakistan’s North-East areas people, specifically province of Punjab people remunerate human-traffickers with their entire life savings or auction their live-stocks and then they come South-West province Balochistan, which is bordering with Afghanistan and Iran. This province’s coastal area is on distance of about 50 miles from the Gulf States Oman and Dubai.
Panjabi ethnic people and other migrant by the launches of smuggler travel to Middle-East states, some of them succeed to their desired destine but there they work like slaves because they don’t have legal documents.
Many of discussed migrant enter in Iran without travelling documents or some have forged papers. Mostly these migrant are arrested by Iranian forces and deported back to Pakistan. Among them some succeed to reach Turkey and get arrested by Turkish official who behave with them inhuman way, the fate of majority mentioned migrant is deportation after bearing the pain of intense weather and excruciating travelling. A number of people die in the way to Europe due harsh weather and situations. In past, migrant would go to Europe by Balochistan to Iran, then Turkey and then Greece and Italy, but now borders are secured with security and modern invented devices, as well as planted mines and bomb sub-ground along with the borders demarcations. These all made impossible the borders crossing, but embittered live, bad law and older, ruined political system, biased prevalence of laws, desperate future and other reasons push indigents through migration to developed world.
In Pakistani province Balochistan, the Hazara ethnic predominating Shia sect is under attacked of majority Wahabis. This community is fleeing to other countries due to unending attacks on them. They have to exodus to Malaysia, Indonesia, Australia or any other country in all means whether those are legal or illegal.
The Afghani people from Afghanistan come to Balochistan by human smugglers in very perilous ways. They travel by trawlers and containers, and many times several people died due to choking and unviability and fresh air for breathing to people in sealed massive boxes welded with vehicles.
Human trafficking is great menace for humanity and it is the world of injustice with powerless humans by affluent and statesmen. Presently, in above discussed countries and regions states are exploitation, coercing tools and nothing else.
Some where people are being wronged in the pretense of religion, race, ethnic and nationality. Here all these means are untrue and the main reason is the economy. For instance, the Rohingya ethnic is being persecuted by Buddhists and it is reasoned confliction between faiths of Muslims and Buddhism but in Pakistan people are fleeing to Europe who are tyrannized by fellow Muslims, here no Buddhist exist. In Afghanistan, currently no sectarian confliction seems but people are exploited in hand of homo-sects. Bengalis and Indians are migrating not for religious factor but due to poverty and hunger. Behind illegal migration solely injustices of capitalism is motive which is mauling the innocent people on state level in shape of religion, race, ethnic, and so on. Otherwise, the same race, religion and ethnics are living in Europe’s developed countries but such loathsome conflictions do not take place there.
In world human smuggling cannot be stopped by crackdown on smugglers or traffickers. Or this series cannot be suspended by beefing-up the security measures and installation of security devices on borders. Only by the implementation of socialism and providing justice to people is panacea of this malady. The ghastly genie of neoliberalism will cause destruction in world and take-up people for migration. And this lout can be defeated by an even economic system only.
By Basheer Ahmed Ijbani
Civil Hospital is known as a Sandman hospital is situated in the Quetta capital of Balochistan which is main hospital in the province. The viceroy of British government in this region Sir Robert Sandman erected this hospital during the occupation of Britain on subcontinent. Sir Robert Sandman was colonial British Indian officer and administrator, was sun of General Robert Turnbull Sandman.
In 1866, Sir Sandman was appointed officer of Dera Ghazi Khan and there first showed his capacity in dealing with Baloch tribes. He was very eminent leader and his entire life spent for the serving of human. He always interested for development and improvement at that time he brought such these historical works and built Hospital and schools. He died in 1892. After his death our authorities got failed to maintain the management of hospitals to bring improvement and new technologies, the masses of province they are still on difficulties due to lack of facilities in discussed hospital.
The crisis which provincial Sandman Hospital is facing, the modern technologies with technologists for the sub-departments. But unfortunately the people of province, they are deprived of these facilities in this modern era. If the Balochistan is examined, so Quetta is the developed and modern city throughout province and it is also provincial capital. In city is rash of buildings without building code and jumbled of traffic. The Quetta is sole city in Balochistan where the other districts people come with mean of treatment in capital of province. In spite of capital and modern city the Quetta compared to other areas of Balochistan, even than people are in hot water in this city. From very far areas people are come but there are not facilities in governmental hospitals and the patients are facing difficulties due to scarce of facilities in hospital, as compare to other hospitals civil is very rash because its situated in the center of city, local people are referring to civil hospital.
Here the civil hospital Quetta problems are spotlighted. Some departments are utmost required which do not exist in discussed hospital; pathology, new born Unit and neurology. Radiology is not established at mentioned hospital yet, which is chief requirement for diagnose of diseases and doctors send patients to private labs for CT-scan and Magnetic Resonance Imaging [MRI], and most of patients cannot afford heavy charges.
At hospital gynecology department is but it lacks Born Unit. Surprisingly, Neuro-surgeons are appointed in hospital but no department exists.
Discussed above essential machineries and skilled staff are required at civil hospital Quetta which are available at private hospitals situated around the largest government hospital of province. Unavailability of modern machinery and qualified staff at civil hospital Quetta is great unjust with citizens who cannot approach to private hospital due to indigence. In some departments machinery is provided but that is out of order and need reparation or innovation. The authorities of hospital express disability about overhauling the said machinery reasoning with lack of funds.
The private labs charge Rs 4000 or 5000 thousands fee for MRI and CT-Scan and this amount is not affordable by poor people whose entire month income is equal or lower than the mentioned sum.
The provincial government allocates an enormous amount for health sector in its annual budget. The plight of Civil Hospital speaks explicitly that this amount is not being spent on this organization but it is vanishing somewhere else which is to be ascertained. A common person can apprehend that if apportioned budget is utilized in fair manner for hospital so certainly its condition would not be like present.
Mostly patients have been from Civil Hospital complained about staff of hospital for not dealing in polite manner. The labs staff and technicians at civil hospital have affiliations with private ones and patient blame on them for covenant with outside of hospital lab owners.
It was also noticed that computers operating staff charge in extra at receipt section from gullible persons. Such things must be monitored by Medical Superintendent [MS] of Civil Hospital, and it is the responsibility of MS he must visit and check the system of each department at main hospital of the province. It would be more appreciated that MS receive complains by the patients personally and take measures for the resolve of those.
At Civil Hospital the political influence also is affecting the performances, where joiner doctors other staff has been promoted by affiliations with authorities bypassing all rules and regulations, whilst senior and competent ones are compelled work as sub-ordinate. Recommendation and dishonest culture is on peak at civil hospital Quetta, that the position holders are deprived of their right status. Political injustices has dilapidated the large health unit of province the Civil Hospital Quetta and here fair system prevalence is paramount, otherwise this will go to total failure. The higher authorities’ urgent attentions are invited to this hospital for rehabilitation.
The writer can be reached at email: basheerahmed30. Com twitter: @basheerijbani blog: http://www. basheerijbari.wordpress. com Facebook: basheerijbani.
By Shehzad Baloch
In Balochistan’s some areas operations were conducted and the provincial leader affirmed first time for actions against militants. Before from this operation were being conducted, media has blacked-out those and authorities also have been denying about such actions.
In Balochistan, operation and human right violation current series was commenced after 2002 in dictator Musharraf regime. The Nationalists ever blamed on state apparatus for committing against human dignity in the province of Balochistan.
The National Party’s leaders and politician also were aware about this series, and they also knew that they were not capable to suspend this but they were appetite for positions in assemblies in style of nationalism.
In month of May 2015, an operation was conducted in area of Mastung and Kalat districts by state forces, where diverging statements appeared in media on behalf of nationalists and statesmen. Nationalists told that innocent civilian were killed and showed in media as insurgents while state officials declared them armed insurgent who were killed in encounter. After this operation the elected member for National Assembly Sardar Kamal Khan Bangulzai at assembly floor voiced-up that in operation was conducted in his constituency killed people were totally innocent and armless. He further said that this is gross human rights violation. The arrested people could be brought before the law institutes and would be given right of legal defense. In this way killing to people drive them to pick-up gun.
Mr Hasil Bizenjo, the president of National Party also notified human rights violation in mentioned operation by state force. Surprisingly, the leaders of NP just expressed expostulations in media but some after got silenced about this issue. Possible they were pressurized for this act.
The human rights violation and operation series is very long in Balochistan. Sadiq Umrani also spoke some words against security forces but he also for unknown reasons adopted quietness about this issue.
The National party leaders were well aware of Balochistan situations, if they are sensitive about human rights or they are well civilized, then they should had not come in government and didn’t accept responsibilities. Or they merely are pursuing the assemblies’ seats and other incentives, hence at least they do not proclaim for defending the rights of Baloch and protecting resources of Balochistan. This region is perturbed and here a war is being fought for separation. The international powers are leveraged here. Now at the end of his government by a slight complain for human rights violation by NP leaders do not suite they should follow those who have conferred seats in assemblies. Mean after the being sacked of theirs government they show and claim that we have resisted at assemblies floors. This act of NP leaders is crocodile’s tear and implicating that in future they do the business nationalism for their interests and may get opportunity of being MPA and MNA again.
By Shehbaz Azam Khetran
Education is the ultimate truth of intellectual and physical development. Balochistan is a deprived province with no more fragrance of educational activities. The government is motivated to eliminate the intellectual poverty with gun and jail, although the ruling government is raising the slogans of educational reforms in Balochistan. But unfortunately, the facts and figures are exhibiting something else. According to the Aliff Alan District Education Ranking 2015 the education rate of Balochistan is just 55.99% with provincial ranking of 7/8. According to Aliff Ailaan, the number of primary school in province is 10,585; among them middle schools are 1,165 whilst secondary schools are 783, and higher secondary schools are 43. In gender distribution just 3,506 Schools for female and 9,027 for boys. The availability of teachers in schools is also not satisfactory. Data shows that there are only 17,136 teachers for primary schools, 10,012 for middle schools, 15,139 for secondary schools and 1,334 for higher secondary schools. The gender distribution is 14,081 female and 29,540 male teachers.
The learning outcomes are also very disastrous in the province that 58% of the student at primary level even cannot read story in Urdu, 57% cannot read a sentence in English, and 67% cannot solve two digits division. If situation remains same then it would be beyond the expectations that universal literacy assigned rate will be achieved and would be peace in Balochistan. The net enrollment rate at primary schools is somewhat better, like 65% boy, 42% girl and total 55%. But in middle schools the enrollment rate of boys is 36% while the girl is just 17% which makes a total of 28% enrollment in middle schools which is very low graded. The enrollment at high school level is very disastrous in which the enrollment of boys is 19% enrollment of girls are only 7% making a total of 14% enrollment at high school level. The dropout level at primary level is also negating the slogans of education emergency of provincial government in Balochistan that the dropout level of boys at primary school is 46% and girls is 55%, so the total the dropout at primary level is 50%.
The cause of huge dropout level is lack of access to schools, lack of facilities in schools and poor financial condition of the people. Let us now through a light glance on the infrastructure of the school in the province. The provincial government is busy in making people fool through print and electronic media just chanting slogan of education emergency in Balochistan but the data shows another picture. The school infrastructure score of the province is just 32.63%. The schools which don’t have facility of electricity in mineral rich province are 31%. Water is very necessary for human being but the students of Balochistan are deprived of water facility in 82% of their schools for 65 years. Around 85% schools don’t have facility of toilets and 64% schools are without boundary walls. It has been noticed that in Panjgur district of Balochistan the terrorist organization named Tanzeem al-furqan-ul-islam threatened the people to not send their girls to schools for education, so despite making security measure the province doesn’t have boundary walls of about 33% schools. And 74% of girls’ schools in province are deprived of toilet facilities. The proportion of schools where building condition is not satisfactory rate is 75%.
Moreover, there are 34% primary schools which have only one classroom and one teacher for all grade of primary level and the class room ratio in primary school is 2.1. The pupil teacher ratio in primary schools is 32:1, the teacher school ratio in primary schools is 2:1 and the most disastrous the primary schools with single teachers are 57%. This is the original face of the performance of so called nationalist and middle class government of the Balochistan. The situation cannot be improved until the provincial and the federal government changes their negligent attitude toward Balochistan. The provincial including federal government and the network of NGO’s should make it priority to established schools and provision of quality education to the deprived children of mineral rich province.
The writer is student of BS Education program at International Islamic University Islamabad.
A member of the treasury benches from Balochistan has accused law-enforcement agencies (LEAs) of killing innocent people in the name of security in his province.
Speaking in the National Assembly on Monday, Sardar Kamal Khan Bangulzai of the National Party said: “If security agencies didn’t mend their ways, I am afraid they will face more robust resistance from militants in coming days” because near and dear ones of innocent victims were left with no option but to take up arms.
He said Baloch people, including public servants, were picked up by agencies and their bodies were found within 24 hours. The MNA alleged three brothers were taken away from his home district of Mastung a few days ago and two of them were killed during investigation. “Even if they were involved in a crime, didn’t they deserve a fair trial?”
Mr Bangulzai said the National Party had remained a target of militants and it supported military operations again outlaws, but “declaring all Baloch terrorists and killing them will only fuel militancy in the province”.
He repeatedly talked about the arrest of provincial government employees by law-enforcement agencies. “There are many law-abiding Baloch who are being kept in detention centres with no recourse to law. You can hang criminals right in the middle of a thoroughfare, but at least provide them a fair chance to prove their innocence.”
The arrested suspects could be tried in military courts, but they should not be killed unheard, he said.
The NP lawmaker said: “I am sitting in the National Assembly because I believe in the federation and constitution of Pakistan. But when I go back to my constituents I cannot face them because of their sufferings at the hands of law enforcers. My only suggestion to the government is to review its modus operandi regarding its ongoing operation in the province.”
He said the best way forward was to engage elected representatives in the operation.
In his speech, Leader of the Opposition Khursheed Shah criticised the government for ignoring officers from Balochistan and Sindh for promotion to senior grades.
He claimed that about 60 to 70 per cent officers from smaller provinces who were even recommended for promotion by the Central Selection Board had been sidelined to accommodate a certain category of officers from Punjab.
Mr Shah said he had repeatedly taken up the issue with the prime minister, but “I am sure my letters are not presented to the prime minister. Otherwise he would have taken some action”.
The opposition leader once again asked the government not to make the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor project controversial.
In a separate speech, Dr Farooq Sattar of the MQM claimed that the government’s National Action Plan had lost its direction, at least in Karachi.
He said: “We really don’t know who is in charge of the Karachi operation because everybody — Rangers and provincial and federal governments — are altogether talking different things.”
(Courtesy to Dawn)
Our generals say India’s spy agency RAW is up to its nasty tricks again. No evidence provided but, okay, we’ll buy the story for now. There are two good reasons. First, it’s safer not to question the wisdom of generals. Second, they speak from deep experience, having long played the spy-versus-spy game across borders.
So let’s provisionally assume that India’s spies have engineered the odd bomb blast here and there, and send occasional gifts to the BLF or other militant Baloch movements.
But RAW’s alleged antics are pinpricks compared to the massive and irreversible brain damage that Pakistan’s schools, colleges, and universities inflict upon their students.
Imagine that some devilish enemy has perfected a super weapon that destroys reasoning power and makes a population stupid. One measure, though not the only one, of judging the lethality of this hypothetical weapon would be lower math scores.
No such scores are actually available, but for over 40 years my colleagues and I have helplessly watched student math abilities shrivel.
Only the wealthy customers of elite private schools and universities, tethered as they are to standards of the external world, have escaped wholesale dumbing down. As for the ordinary 99pc, with the rare exception of super-bright students here or there, some form of mental polio is turning most into math duffers.
Imagine that an enemy has perfected a super weapon that destroys reasoning power.
Does being poor at math really matter? After all there are plenty of intelligent people everywhere, even brilliant ones, who hate math and therefore are bad at it. But this is only because they had dull and uninspiring teachers who never taught them that math is a beautiful exercise of reason, one step at a time. Once on track, you quickly realize that math is the most magnificent, surprising, and powerful of all human achievements.
The success of the human species over other forms of life on planet Earth depends squarely on mathematics. Without math the pyramids could not have been built, navigation would be impossible, electricity could not have been discovered and put to use, factories and industries would not exist, computers and space exploration would be unimaginable, etc.
Here’s how bad our situation is: in a recent math class, I had rather typical 18-20 year-olds from non-elite schools. They had studied geometry but their teachers had not exposed them to the notion of proof — the step-by-step process in which one starts with a proposition, carefully constructs arguments, and then triumphantly arrives at the conclusion.
Instead, they were taught math as a hodgepodge of recipes. A few they remembered, the rest were forgotten.
I nearly wept to see that barely three to four students out of 60 could prove the angles of a triangle add up to 180 degrees. None could prove that similar triangles have proportional sides. Quite a few had difficulty with fractions, some did not know how to take the square root of four or nine or unless armed with a calculator, and translating even simple real-life situations (like compound interest) into equations was difficult. Twelve-year-old kids in Japan or Europe would have done better.
Their teachers are still worse. Earlier I had the misfortune of teaching math courses to college math teachers. In their late 30s or early 40s, most were staid and stable family men who had come to university, expecting to get a higher degree and hence a higher pay grade.
But for all their years of teaching math, they were blanks. Diluting my nominally ‘advanced math’ course to a beginning level course did not help. My conscience could not allow a single teacher to pass.
Could the use of English — a difficult language for all except ‘O’ and ‘A’ level students — reasonably explain this dreadful situation? I am sympathetic to this point of view and therefore use Urdu exclusively in my physics and math lectures, both in distance learning modules and in real-time teaching (except when a university’s regulations require that I teach in English). But this barely solves 10-20pc of the problem.
So then is the math curriculum at fault? It certainly can be improved but almost the same topics in math and science are listed in Pakistani curricula as would expectedly be covered by a similar cohort internationally. In fact, primary school children in Pakistan are expected to carry a bigger burden than overseas kids.
The impediment to learning proper math is just one — wrong learning goals, wrong attitudes. Mathematics does not require labs, computers, or fancy gadgetry. But it does demand mental capacity and concentration. Nothing is true in math unless established by argumentation based upon a rigorous chain of logic, with each link firmly attached to the preceding one. The teacher who cannot correctly solve a math problem by following the defined logic will suffer loss of face before his students.
Contrast this with the madressah model wherein truth is defined by the teacher and prescribed books. The teacher’s job is to convey the book contents, and the student’s job is to appropriately absorb and memorize. There are no problems to be solved, nor is challenging suppositions or checking logical consistency either encouraged or even tolerated.
Limited to religious learning, such learning attitudes are perfectly fine. But their absorption into secular parts of the education system is disastrous. The hafiz-i-science or hafiz-i-math, which are copiously produced, carry exactly zero worth.
Giving logic a back seat has led to more than diminished math or science skills. The ordinary Pakistani person’s ability to reason out problems of daily life has also diminished. There is an increased national susceptibility to conspiracy theories, decreased ability to tell friend from foe, and more frequent resort to violence rather than argumentation. The quality of Pakistan’s television channels reflects today’s quality of thought.
For too long education reform advocates have been barking up the wrong tree. A bigger education budget, better pay for teachers, more schools and universities, or changing instructional languages will not improve learning outcomes. As long as teachers and students remain shackled to the madressah mindset, they will remain mentally stunted. The real challenge lies in figuring out how to set their minds free.
The writer teaches physics and mathematics in Lahore and Islamabad.
(Courtesy to Dawn)
By M Anwar Baloch
14th June 2015 — The theme of this year’s campaign is “Thank you for saving my life”. It focuses on thanking blood donors who save lives every day through their blood donations and strongly encourages more people all over the world to donate blood voluntarily and regularly with the slogan “Give freely, give often. Blood donation matters.” The campaign aims to highlight stories from people whose lives have been saved through blood donation, as a way of motivating regular blood donors to continue giving blood and people in good health who have never given blood to begin doing so. (WHO)
Pakistan with international world marks “World Blood Donor Day” on 14th June which is specified for Blood donors by World Health Organization (WHO), a United Nation’s commission. The Blood Donor Day conduction is supposed to sensitize the youth about donation of blood and on this date convening is also aimed to gratitude those who by the donation confer new life to Millions ail people worldwide and those patients’ survival rely on that donated blood.
In country of Pakistan 250000 bottles blood is required yearly but hardly 22000 are being banked and this ratio is much lower comparatively other countries of world. Within Pakistan, in the province of Balochistan the trend of blood donation is dawdling. Here, in some cities and a small number of students on college and University levels donate blood and excluding this rest of population is reluctant about this philanthropic effort. Among females the blood donation conscious is equal to none.
Surprisingly, in our country a great portion of population is unaware about their blood group, though in this modern era it is mandatory for human. The identification of blood group helps at the time of causality and by this way someone also can be solaced by family-kin or donor.
History and Purpose of Blood Donation:
During the World War-I, a French person exerted for donation of blood but due to non-categorization in blood could not succeed. At that time, positive and negative ingredients in blood were discovered only. With passage of time medical science is developing and through this human discovered the blood groups which helped combination for donation and transfer of blood and this also highlights the factors which guide relevance to transformation of blood.
In 1930, Siki Foso institute of medical science in Masco experimented in odd way, that a 60 year old man who lost his life in an accident and within 24 hours of death that person’s blood was transferred to a young man and his life was saved, who attempted to commit suicide and during that he cut-off his both hands.
Similarly, Munich Clinic, Chemical Street in England also successively transformed blood from a person to another one in 1936. The mobile Blood Banks through vans in Spain were collecting and supplying to hospital in 1936, said vehicles were facilitated with devices to stock blood fresh for long time.
In 1939, an English doctor Philip discovered the transfer of Anti-body is genetically part in blood, similarly Dr Aidnone in 1941 discovered plasma and red blood cell separation. The Red-cross initiated blood bank formation in 1941. Aftermath in 1943 Doctors Paul B.Son revealed that Hepatitis patient by transformation of blood also shift the disease to next person. In 1948, Doctor Capri started using of plastic pouches instead bottles of made of glass for preservation of blood.
Blood is divided in eight groups with four positive and four negative; A+ve, B+ve, O+ve, AB+ve and in negative group O-ve, B-ve, A-ve, AB-ve, respectively. O-ve group holders are universal donor that can donate blood to other all group holders whilst the mentioned group holders can be donated by only O-ve and other all groups do not match with them. AB+ve group can receive blood from all others fellow groups but it cannot donate at all to someone. A+ve group of blood in large size covers 34% exists with majority in world.
A healthy person between the ages of 18 to 55 years can donate blood least 4 times in years, if someone does not donate four times so twice in year can conveniently. Commonly, the human body contains equal to three bottles blood in spare, hence those youth who donate blood within three months, so it impacts on them positively in health account. In such people cholesterol remains on normal level, within three months donation of blood causes generation fresh blood in human body which makes stronger the immunization power against diseases. It is also a famous adage that to generate fresh blood and get healthy. By the donation blood a person never gets podgy, even contrary to the said notion, donation symptoms positively on health of someone. The donation of blood in three months also shuns the attack of lethal diseases, like cancer.
In our country the blood donation is required most due to high rate of accidents, bomb blast and likewise. Apart from this, thousands children are suffering from thalassemia disease required blood in each month. The dialysis patient required blood in each month, the same patient also required blood in week in case of operation, and otherwise they cannot be operated without blood supplement.
Thanks to donors of Baloch Blood Bank who come for donation by a phone call without knowing the patient’s details. They put aside all their routine practices for this charitable task. Mostly, attendant of a patient donate to needful one, but sometimes people deny for donating blood their parents. Baloch Blood Bank has been established before four years. This organization has supplied around 14000 blood required patients through its kind donors and this splendid performance is glory for this.
The World Blood Donor Day is commemorated by Baloch Blood Bank on 14th June of year constantly and admiration certificates are distributed among the donors.
The provincial government is plead for allocation of a space to Baloch Blood Bank, and provide upgraded machinery which is required utmost the organization, and then organizational responsibilities will be disposed smoothly. The organization prescribes the NADRA (National Database and Registration Authority) to mention blood group in CNIC (Computerized National Identity Card) which will assist for tracing-out the blood group of a victim in any untoward or disaster to treat medically. The government departments also should consider the blood donation certificate at time of recruitment.
Let we make commitment about arouse of conscious regarding blood donation in our society. All members of society are appreciated for donation of blood through our organization Baloch Blood Bank.
Dear Comrades of the Mehrab Sangat!
Through this letter I want to express my appreciation for the efforts you make to read our works. As a Marxist I welcome your critique. However, I would say your critique is confined to only one of my many articles on Baluchistan. We will attempt to answer the criticisms in the order they were raised in your letter. I would also suggest that if you had carefully gone through the hundreds of articles I have written on Baluchistan in the last 35 years, your opinion perhaps would have been different. I am writing this reply in English, as it is easier for me to express myself in it. In any case Urdu, Punjabi and English are not my mother languages if that is of any real relevance. More importantly, I believe that translation from English into Baluchi, Pashto, Brohi, Dari, or other languages spoken in Baluchistan would be relatively less burdensome. I will be rather brief in my reply to avoid complexity and ambiguity.
- Pakistan was created in the aftermath of the tragic defeat of the 1946 revolution the south Asian subcontinent that had begun with the sailors’ revolt in Karachi, Bombay and Madras. The bloody partition of this British colony leads to the slaughter of more than two million innocent souls in a religious frenzy along with the largest transmigration of peoples in modern history. Pakistan was created on the base of religion comprising different nationalities. However after almost 68 years the ruling class has failed to create a united, modern nation state and a genuine Pakistani nation. Along with the class exploitation there exist national oppression and there is an increasing national deprivation amongst the masses of the oppressed nationalities. The Pakistani ruling classes have failed to carry out the tasks of the national democratic revolution the state has intensified the repression of the working classes and national subjugation of the oppressed nationalities. Probably the worst national oppression is being inflicted by the state in Baluchistan. There is an on-going orgy of killings, kidnappings and brutalities against the political activists in particular. Historically obsolete, economically redundant and reactionary elite through its state apparatus has morphed Pakistan into a prison house of the oppressed nationalities.
- On the question of the killing of Sindhi and Punjabi workers toiling for the FWO, our position was utterly different from that of the Pakistani ruling elite and its intelligentsia, including the Baluch ministers in the puppet regime of the Pakistani state in Quetta. As you have expressed your sorrow on this tragic killing of the workers so did we. However, it would be horrendous to appease, endorse or praise an act of assassination of these poor proletarians. We also explained that this could be an act of sabotage and defamation, an instrument in the hands of the oppressive state to vilify the struggle for national liberation in Baluchistan. We never equate state terrorism with the acts of individual terrorism in an armed struggle. We entirely subscribe to Marx’s analysis of the 1857 War of Independence in India and the brutalities of the British imperialists. However, we must note that in the same article in the New York Daily Tribune Marx also wrote, “The English bourgeoisie will neither emancipate nor materially mend the social condition of the mass of the people, depending not only on the development of the productive powers, but on their appropriation by the people. But what they will not fail to do is to lay down the material premises for both. Has the bourgeoisie ever done more? Has it ever affected a progress without dragging individuals and people through blood and dirt, through misery and degradation? The Indians will not reap the fruits of the new elements of society scattered among them by the British bourgeoisie, till in Great Britain itself the now ruling classes shall have been supplanted by the industrial proletariat, or till the Hindoos themselves shall have grown strong enough to throw off the English yoke altogether…The devastating effects of English industry, when contemplated with regard to India, a country as vast as Europe, and containing 150 millions of acres, are palpable and confounding. But we must not forget that they are only the organic results of the whole system of production, as it is now constituted. That production rests on the supreme rule of capital. The centralization of capital is essential to the existence of capital as an independent power. The destructive influences of that centralization upon the markets of the world does but reveal, in the most gigantic dimensions, the inherent organic laws of political economy now at work in every civilized town. The bourgeois period of history has to create the material basis of the new world — on the one hand universal intercourse founded upon the mutual dependency of mankind, and the means of that intercourse; on the other hand the development of the productive powers of man and the transformation of material production into a scientific domination of natural agencies. Bourgeois industry and commerce create these material conditions of a new world in the same way as geological revolutions have created the surface of the earth. When a great social revolution shall have mastered the results of the bourgeois epoch, the market of the world and the modern powers of production, and subjected them to the common control of the most advanced peoples, then only will human progress cease to resemble that hideous, pagan idol, who would not drink the nectar but from the skulls of the slain”. (MECW Volume 12, p. 217; First published: in the New-York Daily Tribune, August 8, 1853)
- However, Marx and Engels vividly declared their position on the national question in The Communist Manifesto, the fundamental document of Marxism that these great teachers cherished till the end of their lives. They wrote in the Manifesto, “The Communists are further reproached with desiring to abolish countries and nationality. The workingmen have no country. We cannot take from them what they have not got. Since the proletariat must first of all acquire political supremacy, must rise to be the leading class of the nation, must constitute itself the nation, it is, so far, itself national, though not in the bourgeois sense of the word. National differences and antagonisms between peoples are daily more and more vanishing, owing to the development of the bourgeoisie, to freedom of commerce, to the world-market, to uniformity in the mode of production and in the conditions of life corresponding thereto”. (Pp102). Marx rejected sentimentalism in the scientific socioeconomic analysis of a situation and in developing the perspective of a social revolution inferred from this analysis. In this series of articles on India he wrote on 22 June 1853, “England, it is true, in causing a social revolution in Hindostan, was actuated only by the vilest interests, and was stupid in her manner of enforcing them. But that is not the question. The question is, can mankind fulfil its destiny without a fundamental revolution in the social state of Asia? If not, whatever may have been the crimes of England she was the unconscious tool of history in bringing about that revolution. Then, whatever bitterness the spectacle of the crumbling of an ancient world may have for our personal feelings, we have the right, in point of history, to exclaim with Goethe:
“Sollte these Qual uns quälen
Da sie unsre Lust vermehrt,
Hat nicht myriaden Seelen
Timur’s Herrschaft aufgezehrt?”
[“Should this torture then torment us?
Since it brings us greater pleasure?
Were not through the rule of Timur
Souls devoured without measure?”]
[From Goethe’s “An Suleika”, Westöstlicher Diwan]
The New-York Daily Tribune, June 25, 1853
- At the same time we believe that the method of armed struggle is not the correct, effective and successful path to achieve national or class emancipation. Armed struggle has played an auxiliary role in the struggle for self-determination at certain times but ultimately the successful revolutionary conclusion can only come about by linking this struggle with mass struggle of workers, peasants and youth in the industrial and urban centres. The great teachers of Marxism, Marx, Engels, Lenin and Trotsky never ever advocated armed struggle and guerrilla warfare as the methods for carrying out a socialist revolution. Unfortunately, you have chosen to ignore the innumerable demonstrations and protest campaigns we have organised and participated in against the repression of the Baluch people by the rotten bourgeois state of Pakistan. The involvement of the imperialist states and their proxies in this repression in any way is equally condemnable. In your critique, however, there is a convenient silence and you don’t even mention those Baluch politicians who have connived and are complicit in the coercion, tyranny and exploitation of Baluchistan by the Pakistani ruling class, ever since 1948. The present Baluch-led regime in Quetta is in an unholy alliance with the most reactionary section of the Punjabi bourgeois, the PML (N). Their subservience, impotence and slavish attitude represent the character of the privileged classes and their toady petit bourgeois intelligentsia in Baluchistan. Marx also wrote that the British conquered India with Indian armies. If we look at the present political leadership in Baluchistan the class contradiction is glaringly evident. Lenin explained the role of the socialists of the oppressed nationalities as follows: “The Socialists of the oppressed nations, on the other hand, must particularly fight for and maintain complete, absolute unity (also organizational) between the workers of the oppressed nation and the workers of the oppressing nation. Without such unity it will be impossible to maintain an independent proletarian policy and class solidarity with the proletariat of other nations in the face of all the subterfuge, treachery and trickery of the bourgeoisie; for the bourgeoisie of the oppressed nations always converts the slogan of national liberation into a means for deceiving the workers; in internal politics it utilizes these slogans as a means for conducing reactionary agreements with the bourgeoisie of the ruling nation; in the realm of foreign politics it strives to enter into pacts with one of the rival imperialist powers for the purpose of achieving its own predatory aims. The fact that the struggle for national liberation against one imperialist power may, under certain circumstances, is utilized by another ‘Great’ Power in its equally imperialist interests”. (Lenin, collected works Vol.22 Pp. 143)
- The mega projects in Baluchistan are being carried out, not to develop Baluchistan, or to provide employment to the already destitute Baluchi people, but to satisfy the mega greed for bigger profits and control over natural mineral resources and imperial influence in the region. It will enrich the imperialist investors and further impoverish the masses. The Pakistani rulers and the state institutions including the FWO will act as middlemen and commission agents for imperial investors. Capital investments in an epoch of decay of capitalism will not develop the area, nor will it generate many jobs. Even if these projects are completed they will distort the development in Baluchistan and create an even greater unevenness and inequality. A situation with poverty and deprivation for the masses in the midst of plenty. An oasis of advanced technology and infrastructure in the desert of primitiveness. It is primarily tailored for the extortion of resources, wealth and strategic positions for their hegemonic designs. In the recent period even the character of capital investment has been transformed from being labour intensive to capital intensive, with human labour being replaced aggressively with technological robots of various categories. The Chinese not only use less labour and more technology but they will also bring Chinese staff to run their projects, as can be seen from their previous experience in Pakistan, Latin America and Africa. Only the most menial and low-paid jobs will end up going to the local workers.
- On the question of the military aggression under Bhutto in 1974 in Baluchistan. This operation was given special attention in my book, Pakistan’s Other Story and was totally condemned without any qualifications or reservations. The role of US imperialism, with its proxies like the Shah of Iran and others inside Baluchistan, has been condemned innumerable times in no uncertain terms. In no way have we been apologists of Bhutto’s blunders and the crimes of the subsequent PPP leaderships. We firmly believe in the Leninist position on the state, and any compromise, justification or concession to the tyranny and repression of the bourgeois state is a crime in our opinion.
- As far as the resolution of the right-wing reactionary Republican Senators in the US Congress is concerned, I don’t think it has been a source of much publicity for the Baluch cause. US imperialism is extremely nervous with Chinese investment in Pakistan particularly with the deep-sea port of Gwadar, which is only 300 miles from the Strait of Hormuz where more than 50% of the world’s crude oil passes through. On top of this, the Chinese are heavily investing in infrastructure, control of mineral resources and the supply of heavy arms and ammunition to the army. This resolution was more for US imperialism’s narrow geopolitical and strategic interest in Baluchistan and the region as a whole, rather than for the benefit of Baluch national emancipation. The first question we must ask is the following: to whom are we looking for support for the cause of national liberation? Is it the bourgeoisie, its ‘world community’, in the shape of the UN, a totally impotent body that cannot function without US imperialism’s funding, and hence behaves like a concubine to its master’s whims? All these institutions can do is continuing with their hypocrisy, exploitation and oppression. From Kashmir to Palestine, where have they delivered national liberation? Their resolutions and statements are impotent and none can be implemented without the permission of imperialism. Do we truly have illusions that the US imperialists will take up a fight against the Pakistani state on behalf of the Baloch cause? If so, then we are sadly mistaken. Seymour M. Hersh, an investigative American journalist, in a recent article in the London Review of Books, made some startling revelations about the complicity of the CIA, the Saudis and the Pakistani state and agencies in the capture of Osama Bin Laden, his protective housing in Abbotabad and then the sell-out to the Americans leading to his assassination by the Navy Seals. On the “strained relations between the Pakistani state and US imperialism” he revealed that, “Despite their constant public feuding, American and Pakistani military and intelligence services have worked together closely for decades on counterterrorism in South Asia. Both services often find it useful to engage in public feuds ‘to cover their Asses’, as the retired official put it, but they continually share intelligence used for drone attacks, and cooperate on covert operations. It’s understood in Washington that US security depends on the maintenance of strong military and intelligence ties to Pakistan. The belief is mirrored in Pakistan”.
- Or are we trying to mobilise the support of the workers and youth of America, Europe and the whole world? What is truth and reality is that the American workers and youth would not support or have any sympathy for any resolution put up by the right-wing Republicans, whom they despise due to their class and racial oppression against the masses in the USA. Only on the basis of an appeal for class solidarity can the support and solidarity of the workers of the world can be won. I agree with comrade Khair Baksh Marri’s statement (with whom I had intense but friendly discussions) that Baluch liberation must not be for American imperialist interests, as you have quoted in your critique. You should have another; deeper look at this remark and it reveals the true designs, policies, vested interests and strategies of US imperialism on the Baluchistan issue.
- As far as the PPP is concerned, its leadership not only disowns us but hates more than anyone else and tries to attack us however and whenever possible. This is true for the hated Zardari and was also true for Benazir Bhutto. It is therefore richly ironic that you accuse me of being their representative! PPP in its founding documents wrote what no other mass party had ever said in its programme: “The Ultimate objective of the party is the attainment of a classless society that is only possible through socialism in our times”. That’s what made it the traditional and largest party of the oppressed masses in this country. It was a party with a mass base during the revolutionary period of 1968–69 but it very quickly started attacking workers after coming into state power in the 1970s and became alienated from the workers. It was the draconian rule of General Zia and the hanging of Bhutto in 1979 that gave the PPP a new lease of life. However, Benazir Bhutto completely squandered this opportunity by aligning herself with US and British imperialism. Benazir ended up acting as a brake on the developing revolutionary movement in in the mid-1980s. PPP today is not a party as such but an illusion of the large section of masses. However even these illusions are disintegrating and waning rapidly. Its present leaders are a lumpen bourgeoisie comprising of charlatans, embezzlers, crooks, gangsters and criminals. If you read my countless articles both on our Urdu website and in the bourgeois media, you will find our position is totally unambiguous on this issue. In any case now there are several PPP(s) and more will splinter with the ultimate demise of this ‘tradition’.
- You have quoted Comrade Sher Mohammad Marri (whom I met in my youth in 1978 and he was a source of inspiration for me) and Comrade Khair Baksh regarding the destination of the struggle being Socialism. Things should be resolved here slickly. They had read enough Marxism and revolution to know that a socialist revolution is the only way for real national and economic emancipation and this can only be achieved only through a class struggle and not via the national struggle. However, they were trying to get the class support from the whole region for the national liberation of Baluchistan to link it to the class struggle for a socialist victory. To achieve this, the brutal Pakistani state apparatus, which imposes national oppression and class repression and exploitation, has to be smashed. The most decisive, crucial and accomplishing force to carry out this historical task is the youth and the proletariat of the advanced metropolitan centres like Karachi, Lyallpur, Quetta, Lahore, Hyderabad, Sukkur, Peshawar, Gujranwala, Mardan, Nowshera, Gujrat, Zhob, Hub, Taxila/Wah, Rawalpindi, etc. Those who turn the wheels of industry and the economy, who toil in the agrarian or services sector, actually run this society. It is they who can bring the economy to a grinding halt and with that, bring the repressive state to its knees and lead to its overthrow through a Socialist Revolution.
- One of Lenin’s greatest contributions to Marxism was the dialectical development of the National Question. It is truly one of the greatest theoretical treasures for revolutionaries to link the national question to a socialist conclusion. Lenin unfortunately is often quoted opportunistically and mechanically. His three major works on National Question are: a debate with Rosa Luxembourg in his book, ‘The Rights of Nations to Self-Determination’, his work of 1913 ‘Critical Remarks on the National Question’, and the draft programme of the Communist International at the second congress of Third International in 1920. This draft was finalised after amalgamating Manabendra Nath Roy’s amended draft on the colonial and national questions. If one is to genuinely understand Lenin’s position on the national question, his works on this subject have to be dialectically linked and studied in unison. However, a quote which in my opinion reflects the complete essence of Lenin’s position on the National Question is the following:
- “Social-Democrats demand the promulgation of a law, operative throughout the state, protecting the rights of every national minority in no matter what part of the state. This law should declare inoperative any measure by means of which the national majority might attempt to establish privileges for itself or restrict the rights of a national minority (in the sphere of education, in the use of any specific language, in budget affairs, etc.), and forbid the implementation of any such measure by making it a punishable offence. The Social-Democratic attitude to the slogan of ‘cultural-national’ (or simply ‘national’) ‘autonomy’ or to plans for its implementation is a negative one, since this slogan (1) undoubtedly contradicts the internationalism of the class struggle of the proletariat, (2) makes it easier for the proletariat and the masses of working people to be drawn into the sphere of influence of bourgeois nationalism, and (3) is capable of distracting attention from the task of the consistent democratic transformation of the state as a whole, which transformation alone can ensure (to the extent that this can, in general, be ensured under capitalism) peace between nationalities. In view of the special acuteness of the question of cultural-national autonomy among Social Democrats, we give some explanation of the situation. a) It is impermissible, from the standpoint of Social Democracy, to issue the slogan of national culture either directly or indirectly. The slogan is incorrect because already under capitalism, all economic, political and spiritual life is becoming more and more international. Socialism will make it completely international. International culture, which is now already being systematically created by the proletariat of all countries, does not absorb ‘national culture’ (no matter of what national group) as a whole, but accepts from each national culture exclusively those of its elements that are consistently democratic and socialist. (Lenin Collected Works, Progress Publishers, 1977, Moscow, Volume 19, pages 243-251.) [Note: Lenin here uses the term ‘Social Democrats’ to refer to the Marxists, as at this stage in 1913, the Bolsheviks were in the process of leaving the RSDLP]
- I think Lenin says it all. As far we are concerned we are Internationalists. Marxism is nothing if it is not internationalism. We don’t think that National Liberation of oppressed nations and class emancipation are possible within the present state structures, its artificial boundaries and the capitalist system. We support the right of self-determination for the Baluch oppressed masses, including the right of secession. This position also applies to the Pashtoons, Hazaras and other oppressed workers, toilers and youth of different nationalities living in Baluchistan, other parts of South Asia and elsewhere.
- Comrades of the Mehrab Sangat, we are soldiers of the proletarian army of the world revolution. We support your struggle against national oppression to link it to the class struggle of the oppressed toilers of all nationalities. We invite you to join this internationalist struggle for the overthrow of this oppressive capitalist system and their states in every nook and corner of this planet. Socialism eliminates the psychology of private ownership and national oppression, which in the last analysis is the question of ownership of resources, wealth and property. The resources of Baluchistan can only belong to its peoples if the system of private property and ownership of the means of production, distribution and exchange is eliminated, and collective ownership is profoundly established. This is only possible on the basis of a socialist planned economy under the democratic control and management of the workers and the toiling masses.
With Bolshevik Greetings, Lal Khan
“The world has listened to my songs, but no one has understood the pain of my heart”, Mohammad Rafi.
By Doctor Attaullah Bezanjo
Translated by Jameel Jansheer
Mohammad Rafi, the well-known king in the world of music, is a very celebrated superstar, with the plaintive voice in the land of sorrows, He sang for us a variety of romantic songs from “Tu ishq ha, Tu me Husan hon, Tu mujh me ha, Me Tum may” [Translation]. “You are love, I’m beauty, I’m in you and you are in me”, to, “Ganga Ki Mojh aur Jamna Ka Tara, Shab’ab jiska Nasha Me Kud Hi Choor Choor Ta”. [Translation] “The marry-making of Ganga, The twinkling star of (Jamna) hope and love, in utter addiction of wine the one whose pulchritude was broken into pieces”. These are among his fantastic songs that he sung plaintively for us and in his songs was he desperately calling for our company. And now we are listening to his voice.
Moreover, from the songs depicting the pain of love are such thrilling titles as following “Aja Tujh Ko Pukhray Mera Pyaar” Lakin Ab vo Kahan” Sontay Sontay Sohaani Raat dal chokie” [Translation] “Come, Oh my love hails for you” But now she is far away” The deeply silent night elapsed by waiting for you”, are the mostly liked and loved ones among his masterpieces. Besides that if we throw a look at the talented Mohammad Rafi’s life so it has many colours sprawled in the atmosphere of the world of music and in our lives at large. The clear and decent semblance of his beauty, personality, and impressions of enchanting conversations is a hard job for me to define his complex but self-contained persona. His character and personality with all the abilities is like an open book, reading it is easy, but writing on it, is very difficult indeed.
In Amrit-Sarkottla-Singh, where he lived was very much frank and naughty with his two close intimates “Lad’o and Sas’oo”, because of his gregariousness and naughty attitude he was well-known in his society. His father’s name was Ali Mohammad. He was unemployed, wandering on the streets of Lahore but could not get a good job. He then inaugurated a Barber shop there and by means of that he started earning a living for himself as well as because of his being occupied everybody at his shop he lost the company of many of his friends. And then his total family started living in Lahore. Mohammad Rafi has sung almost every variety and genres of music, from classical to Qwali [a type of folk and lengthy devoted song]. He didn’t need any specific occasion for singing. In fact, he considered every occasion as unscrupulous or disloyal, but his plaintive voice every time echoed in the hearts of his fans. He was by nature a very honest and good-hearted man. His personality symbolized sort of a semblance that of a beggar-like temper in his mood. Interesting is the fact that he has sang unlimited songs free of cost. He was as big a singer as he was a big personage too. He was very fond of Tea and sweets.
The master in the world of music also played “Carem Board and Batmenton” as a source of entertainment and enjoyment. He only played cricket to bat. He always loved and talked to the children with his melodious and sweet voice. Moreover, Shoolay film of Amitabh Bachan and Darmandara was his favorite one. He often sang songs when his friends told him to do so. He was very simple and was sort of shy-spirited. Mohammad Rafi, the master in the world of music whenever sang songs, he often cried too. Naughty Mohammad Rafi of childhood, and now the king in the world of music, had a good sense of humor and a simple outlook.
A short plaintive excerpt from his song is as follows:
“Meri Roh Ki Haqiqat Meray Ansoh’on sy Pocho
Mera Majlasii Tabasom Mera Tarjomaan nai..
“Ask my tears about the reality of my soul
My gregarious nature is not the mirror of my life”.
Mohammad Rafi by singing for the film “Jugnoo”, the song “Yahan Badla-hay Wafa Ka bewafaii k Sewa Aur Kya aa?”.
[What else is given in return for loyalty other than disloyalty here?]” And “Bejo Bawara and “Dunya k Rakwalay” titles of two super-hit films, just touched the height of success as well as after their release his career singled the success of the king in the world of music. The two songs of Noshaad which are in this film are the actual depiction of Ganga and Jam’na. And from here emerged Mina-kumari in the line of actresses. Noshaad’s compositions, poetries of Sahir Loudyanvi and the ear-grabbing voice of Mohammad Rafi become the identity of Indian world of music. And from here Noshaad became one of Mohammad Rafiq’s fans. Noshaad liked Mohammad Rafi very much. The bond of friendship between Noshaad and Mohammad Rafi lasted till the end of their lives. That is why by finding Noshaad he betook himself to his house in Mumbai. Noshaad liked Mohammad Rafi and made him sing several songs for him and told him that “One day you’ll be a big superstar in the world of music and your name will be amongst the successful ones”.
The enchanting poetries of Saahir Lodyanvi, Shakeel Badayanvi, Aanand Bakshi, Kayfi Azmi, Sultaan Jaypuri and the amazing voice of Mohammad Rafi put the Indian Film Industry in a new state. And then came another brilliant singer Opine’er, he was a unique singer too. Slowly the both triumphed ahead. They not only brought about the Indian atmosphere to take pride in their music but they earned a very huge prestige for themselves, for, now they are also listened to, eagerly. People say that Mohammad Rafi never sang song, he become the song and delivered into it. Indeed, he was a super-doper singer in the world of music, he was laudable.
“Zulfoo me Jesay Kaandho par Badal Jokay Ohay,
Anko Me Jesay k, May K pyaalay baray Ohay
Masti Ha piyaar Ki tu Vo Shaarab ho”
“On thy shoulders, when the hair falls,
It seems as the clouds decending,
In your eyes as if cups are full (of wine)
If it is due to love, let them be wine”
Mohammad Rafi when singing plaintive songs never felt the need of any sort of addiction. He never drank wine in his entire life. He was totally immersed into his songs when he was singing. After recording, he often listens to his own voice and after that then he told them for the release of his songs. Noshaad composed 149 divergent rhymes of songs, Opina’r 97, and Shankar Jaykash 34. He also worked with Madann Momen. He had formed good acquaintances and relation with Lata Mangishkar, Kishoor Kumaar, Mokesh, Manaday, Memom Kumaar, Mohindar Kapoor, Ayisha Bhosilay, and Talhat Mehmood. When he said two lines with Kondan Lal, so he said that as if he had gotten everything in his life.
“Tum Jo Mel Gahay, Tu Esaa Laga Hai,
Saara Jaahan Mel Gaya Hai,
“When I have you as mine forever, so I’m feeling,
as if I have gotten each and everything in my life”.
Rajind-ur-Kumaar, Jonny Waker, Daleep Kumaar, and Manooj Kumar all have remarked that the hearts has always been entertained and will be by listening to the sweet voice of Mohammad Rafi, the legend indeed. Siraaj Khan says that the pile of his songs that he has left for us, it will always remind us of him, and that of his amazing voice.
“Chaahay Bana Do, Chaahay Metaa Do,
Marr Be Gaahay tu Dowaa Daingay,
“If you make me or finish me,
I’ll always be your wil-wisher”.
“The world has listened to my songs, but no one has understood the pain of my heart”, said Mohammad Rafi. The luck had proved little helpful in his career but all he is today is because of his tireless hard work in his field. Once he after recording the songs, Mohammad Rafi was standing outside the recording room, everyone went home. He was alone but Noshaad was there. Noshaad asked him why he was standing there and not going home. So, when he heard the answer for which he was looking, his eyes were full of tears. “I have no money in my pocket, to get a taxi back home”, said Mohammad Rafi. After recording the songs at the same time after coming out of the recording studio the money is not given. When this scrupulous person started touching the height of success, so he was the shining star in every ceremony and Mahfel.
His last four lines that he recorded are as follows:
“Teraay Anay Aas aa, Dost,
Shaam Per Q Udaas aa, Dost,
Mehaki mehaki Fiizah kehti hay,
Tu Kahi Aas Pass A Dost”.
“By your coming; I’m happy,
Why is the day full of sadness?
Engulfed by the aroma in the air,
You are somewhere around”.
In the month of Ramandan, on Friday 31 July, 1980, he passed away. At that time, the governor of India, Indra Gandhi, said that one hand of India broke away. Indeed, Mohammad Rafi is a superstar in the world of music and his contribution towards Indian Music Industry is laudable, he is the one whose voice has been among the favorites of all people, still it is. And he will always be remembered in the course of history of the world of music for his valuable contribution.
Sabeen Mahmud was a passionate supporter of free speech. She ran a space in a Karachi cafe for people to talk freely about politics, society and human rights – but six weeks ago, in the latest of a string of attacks on liberal activists in Pakistan; a gunman killed her as she drove home. Her mother, Mahenaz, who was next to her, talks about her remarkable daughter.
I hadn’t visited the space for quite a while but that day I just wanted to be around her – it was just a feeling, “I have to go today, and I have to be around, just to show her my support.”
This image keeps going round all the time in my head – these eyes looking, and this gun coming out. I said to Sabeen, “Just look, I mean these guys, what do they want?” I thought it was a mugging actually, I thought they wanted a handbag or phone, because that’s pretty common in Karachi. But then I heard the gun shots, the glass shattered and Sabeen was gone and they disappeared.
I took two bullets. One bullet actually is one of the bullets that Sabeen took, because they fired at such close range – we were stationary because we were at a traffic signal which was red. There were people all around us, and this motorcycle rode up a bit too close for comfort at Sabeen’s side and they fired from there and one of the bullets went through her, out and into my arm and out of my arm. That is one. She took five.
The other one, the police believe it came in and ricocheted somewhere in the car and it went into my back. I must have moved forward to look at her. I was saying to her, “Sabeen, can you hear me? Say something; we’ll just get you to the hospital.”
We did have a part-time driver who was sitting in the back, so then he moved to the front seat and he rushed us to the hospital which was close by.
They gave me some first aid and then I was told I was going to another hospital and they took Sabeen somewhere else. She had to be taken to the morgue actually and I was taken to another, bigger hospital.
Loads of people came, because almost instantly our TV channels had picked up the news, and whoever saw it was on social media telling someone else.
After she died, there was a huge outpouring of support on social media. I have no idea how many people came to the funeral but I was told there were more than 2,000 people. I don’t know how many people I hugged that day.
I’m a bit overwhelmed by all the people who came. I still can’t fathom it, because to me, she wasn’t this public person, she was my family, she was part of me. She was my daughter, and who are all these people mourning her now? It’s a bit awe-inspiring, it’s overwhelming, and I can’t fathom it.
I think I’ll have to tell you a little about myself in order to understand my own child-rearing practices.
I was born in India, in Kolkata, and when I was five we moved to Dhaka which was then East Pakistan but which is now Bangladesh. I had quite a privileged childhood; we had lots of domestic help at home. I was raised by a nanny whom I really loved. She was Catholic; she would take me to church every Sunday because my parents would be asleep.
In Kolkata and in Dhaka we mixed with people from all different religions and everything was acceptable. So I raised Sabeen very much as a global citizen and I used to say to her, “Look, everybody’s good, there’s nobody who’s not. Just because of a country they may belong to, or a race or a religion, it really doesn’t matter. It’s people who matter. No matter if somebody’s poor or rich, we’re all equal and we have to be respectful and mindful and count our blessings.” She internalized all of those values – and she saw me live that life, it wasn’t just rhetoric.
Her idea of fairness started when she was very little. In fact the headmistress of her kindergarten said Sabeen came to the office one day and complained, “The teachers are really unfair – why is it that only boys can play the big drum? Why can’t girls also have a go at it?” When she went to senior school, it was, “Why is it that girls can’t be in the cricket team? Why is it that we can only play softball?”
I pretty much believed that she should be left on her own and she should do whatever she wanted to do. She always did these very risky things that most normal parents would not allow their daughters to do, no matter how independent or old they might be – she was 40. But I always said, “Follow your heart, follow your dream, do what it is that you have to do, no one should get in the way of that.”
I became a single mum after Sabeen had grown up, she was about 19 – she’s the one who initiated my divorce, strange as it may sound. She came back from college in Lahore and said, “Look, if you’re staying in this marriage for me, please don’t do it.” And then she went off and found out from lawyers what the process could be to have a separation, and took me to a legal aid person and we talked about it and then she got all the paperwork done and went to her dad and got him to sign.
She was a very unusual person.
What we hear now is “human rights activist” and “arts patron” and I think: No. She was not really an activist in that sense; it was just her huge sense of fairness and justice. If she felt something was wrong she couldn’t sit still, she just had to raise her voice. So she didn’t have just one cause. She would fight for any and everything – for individuals’ rights.
In recent years lots of young people who were not able to express themselves would come to her because their parents didn’t understand them, and she would counsel them. She would take off sometimes at three o’clock in the morning to sit with minority groups who were being oppressed, just to show her solidarity.
Over the last few years I said to her many times, “Sabeen, one of these days you’re going to get a bullet in your back. But no worries, don’t let that stop you from doing what you want, I will have to deal with whatever happens.”
So that’s what’s happening right now – I’m having to deal with it.
She had received some warnings and some threats. She knew that this event she was hosting [on the day she died] was a risky one – the event was called Unsilencing Balochistan. This is a place where activists have been missing for a long time and families have been obviously shattered – and it’s not talked about.
There was supposed to be a talk at Lahore University of Management Sciences, which is quite progressive, and then they cancelled at the last minute. Somebody called her and asked her if they could have the event at her space and she agreed. Sabeen felt, “This has to be said, this is not right.”
I’m grateful for the fact that I was there with her that day, right next to her in the driver’s seat, and know that she died instantly. The police say it took about four seconds. There was not a whimper, not a moan, not a groan, not a frown – nothing.
She didn’t suffer and there was no horror on her face, she was very peaceful, and she had her dignity even in death in that she didn’t slump over, just her head tilted a little – and that was it.
Of course I realize that my grieving will go on for the rest of my life, but where she’s concerned, my solace is that she lived a very meaningful, purposeful, mindful life. She did more than most people would do in this short lifespan. And she’s in a safe place now.
My strategy was, “OK, don’t think about it now, think about it tomorrow.” Shall I tell you where that came from? When I was about 17 I read Gone With The Wind, and in that, when everything is devastated, the way Scarlett O’Hara dealt with it was – I’ll think about it tomorrow.
Somehow that stayed with me, and in 1969-70, my home was in Dhaka and it was slowly disintegrating – friends were leaving, migrating, and each time I felt a little bit of me was going away. The lanes and the homes that we celebrated in, loved in and had fun in, were gradually dimming. Then one fine day war broke out and we lost that part of the country and suddenly in the blink of an eye home was no longer home. It was a very difficult period in my life, and that’s how I coped with that.
I’ll think about it tomorrow because I keep telling myself, “It’s a lifetime of missing her. Don’t start now, think about it tomorrow.”
I also have a bit of a fear of different causes appropriating Sabeen – and I don’t see her as an icon for any one cause. I don’t want her to be put in any one box, to be categorized as a human rights activist, I don’t quite see her like that – she was very much a whole person.
I want her to be remembered as a human being who cared very deeply for people who were oppressed or people who couldn’t speak up – for freedom of expression. Somebody who was lively, intelligent, fun and very caring. She talked a lot about love. I think Sabeen defies definition.
Mother and daughter
* Sabeen Mahmud was the director of Peace Niche, an NGO which promotes free speech through culture.
* Its best-known venture is T2F (The Second Floor) a cafe in Karachi which has hosted hundreds of events including concerts, film screenings and science talks. T2F was named after its first home in a second-floor rented office.
* In 2013, Sabeen campaigned in support of Valentine’s Day, which religious fundamentalists had condemned as decadent. She printed posters that said, “Don’t keep your distance, let love happen.” She had to go into hiding.
* Sabeen had been working on an art exhibition at London’s Southbank Centre – Dil Phaink, which means “Throw your heart out there in the world,” opened three weeks after her death. Mahenaz, who still has a bullet in her back, attended the opening.
* Mahenaz Mahmud, 64, has been described as a “guru” of Early Childhood Education, and helped develop Pakistan’s first early years curriculum. She has run educational projects in slums and rural areas, and still trains teachers.
(Courtesy to BBC-World)
“National Action Plan” in accordance to the 21st amendment of the constitution of Pakistan was the result of massive carnage of Army Public School Peshawar on 16the December 2014.
The National Action Plan and the 21st amendment was introduced to counter the severe terrorism along with all the stuff fueling terror & violence within state, such as extremism, sectarianism, religious intolerance and hatred etc. NAP consists of 20 points and was public by the Prime Minister himself, some of the 5 important points (Concerned to Quetta’s current scenario) are;
1: Militant outfits and armed gangs will not be allowed to operate in the country.
2: Strict action will be taken against the literature, newspapers and magazines promoting hate-material, decapitation, extremism, sectarianism and intolerance.
3: The defunct outfits will not be allowed to operate under any other name.
4: End to religious extremism and protection of minorities will be ensured.
5: No room will be left for the extremism in any part of the country.
But the NAP seems to be “in coma” within the Balochistan, especially in Quetta. As in reference to the above mentioned points of NAP respectively, Religious Militant Outfits are freely operating in Quetta killing the masses and claiming the responsibility. Non-serious mode is adopted by the LEAs against the prohibition of speeches or literature promoting religious intolerance, sectarianism & extremism and all the defunct outfits are allowed to work by other names which are provided free vacuum for promoting extremism and religious intolerance in common public places. Similarly, no strategy has been adopted to ensure the security of minorities as “Hazaras” being in minority, are targeted routinely. Extremism and sectarian violence has occupied the city which has snatched the peace of the whole city.
Raza Hyder Chaingezi, Quetta
By Kambar Baloch
Nawab Khair Bakhsh Marri got birth in Kahan, an area in Kohlu District of Balochistan, in February 28, 1928. In childhood, the mother of Khair Bakhsh Marri passed away. After this tragedy, some other people of his tribe were given the responsibility of his growth. He was named by the name of his grandfather, Sardar Khair Bakhsh Marri (Awwal). When he was 4-years-old, his father, Sardar Mehrullah Khan Marri, passed away. Due to his small age, Sardar Doda Khan Marri, his uncle was elected as the chieftain of Marri Tribe. On the behalf of English, he was sent to Aitcheson College Lahore for getting education. When he was 22-years-old, he became the chieftain of his tribe in 1950. According to majority of analysts, Khair Bakhsh Marri talked about freedom (Freedom of Balochistan) lately, but according to Mir Mohammad Ali Talpur, in 1951, when Britain’s Political Agent, Davis, inquired Khair Bakhsh Marri that why don’t you let your deprived people to get development from state (State of Pakistan), then he replied him in these words “Davis, if Adolf Hitler would occupy Britain and then would say that Germany would give development to Britain, after all what would be your reaction to it”. So, David says, “I will be ashamed if I ask you this question again”.
In Ayub Khan’s regime, the Government of Pakistan talked about the extraction of petroleum from the Marri Areas, so Khair Bakhsh Marri disallowed them to do so and said that this natural resource (petroleum) is the wealth of the Baloch Nation, and I don’t allow you to extract it. Khair Bakhsh Marri entered in the field of politics at that time when Martial Law was imposed in Pakistan in 1958, and a military operation was also started. The government of Pakistan, during Martial Law, ordered all Chieftains of Baloch Tribes to submit your arms to government, therefore, all chieftains did so along with a demonstration, except Khair Bakhsh Marri, he destroyed his arms into pieces, and said that it is ashamed for me to submit my arms to the Government of Pakistan. Later this principle became the part of his life. Formerly, Khair Bakhsh Marri began his political career in the election of 1956, he became a part of National Assembly in this election. Including this election, he became a member of National assembly in the elections of 1962 and 1970. In mid of 1962, Shero Marri with his colleagues began Guerrilla War against Pakistan, so Khair Bakhsh Marri assisted them secretly. The struggle of 1962 vanished due to unsuitable circumstances. According to the situation, Khair Bakhsh Marri and Shero Marri advised freedom fighters to cease your activities, but they continued it including training and arrangement of camps secretly. In 1973, when Zulfikar Ali Bhutto postponed the government of Balochistan (NAP Government) and launched military operation in throughout Balochistan, then comrades of Khair Bakhsh Marri and Shero Marri, who continued that Guerrilla War, started resistance against Pakistan Army. Once again, a disastrous war began between Baloch Fighters and Pakistan Army.
When war between Baloch Fighters and Pakistan Army began, after that Khair Bakhsh Marri was offered to be the Chief Minister of Balochistan. He did not accept this offer, and favored war of freedom from all aspects. In the reaction of favor of freedom war, in Kohlu, Khair Bakhsh Marri’s house was burnt and orchards were bulldozed. After that he was arrested in Hyderabad Conspiracy Case, he was in prison till 1978, and was released during the regime of Zia. After his release, Sardar Attaullah Mengal and Ghaus Buksh Bizenjo talked about negotiation with State, but Khair Bakhsh Marri denied doing any sort of negotiation. In 1978, during an interview with an American journalist, Selig S.Harrison, he said that this country (Balochistan) is mine, then why do I fight for some jobs. Whenever the Baloch demanded anything, whether that was the demand of some jobs or provincial self-determination, for that Baloch had sacrificed their lives.
After 1978, some ideological comrades of Khair Bakhsh and Marri Tribe got exiled to Afghanistan and he stayed in foreign the countries of Britain and France. In 1992, when Khair Bakhsh Marri and his comrades were exiled to Afghanistan, in the same year Taliban occupied Afghan Government. After the occupation of Afghanistan, Taliban began the attacks on Baloch. A Baloch camp in Helmand was attacked by Taliban, some Baloch Comrades were martyred, Jan Mohammad Marri (martyred later) along with his some friends were arrested. According to Khair Bakhsh Marri himself, “whether it was a mistake or a compulsion, I returned to Balochistan along my ideological comrades and Marri Tribe. In 1992, Khair Bakhsh Marri made a study circle, Haq Tawar, in order to train his companions ideologically and to reunite the scattered power of the Baloch Nation. But Pakistan Army and intelligence agencies of Pakistan watched their each activity. Pakistan knew that Khair Bakhsh Marri is the only obstacle in extraction of natural resources of Balochistan, especially in obtaining of petroleum from Marri areas and in the beginning of Gwadar Mega Project. Therefore, in 2000, the Government of Pakistan arrested Khair Bakhsh Marri and his 150 comrades in Justice Nawaz Marri’s murder case. Khair Bakhsh Marri had said to his comrades that I was not asked a single question about Justice Nawaz Marri’s murder case and I was offered for many incentives along with a luxury life in favor of my permission for the extraction of petroleum from Marri areas. But Khair Marri replied them in these words, “The natural resources of petroleum are the property of Baloch Nation only, and rights of its uses belong to Baloch only”. In 2000, once again the Baloch’s Guerrilla War began under the leadership of Khair Bakhsh Marri’s ideological comrades, Ameer Bakhsh Langove, which is continued in entire Balochistan till today.
After studying Khair Bakhsh Marri’s life, 5 aspects of his life are seen, which are mentioned as below.
- The first aspect of his life is political. In political aspect of his life, he talked about the Baloch Nationalism, and he used to emphasize that the first and basic need of a slave nation is the National Freedom.
- The second aspect of his life is ideological. He was a follower of Socialism. He worked in the favor of Socialism to end the Capitalist System, and he considered the Ideology of Socialism the final mission of his life and also for Baloch Nation.
- The third aspect of his life is about techniques of politics. For the freedom of Balochistan, he selected the techniques of Armed Struggle along with literature and political parties, but he emphasized more on Armed Struggle, because an uncivilized enemy doesn’t understand the language of peaceful struggle, they only understand the language of power (Armed Struggle).
- The fourth aspect of his life is war against Imperialism.He was against imperialism, because he knew that imperialists are the supporter of colonialists to make any nation slave, such as they are supporting Pakistan to become stable it in order to keep the nations in Pakistan slave, like Baloch and Sindhi Nations.
- The fifth aspect of his life is to struggle for freedom of all slave nations in world, but he would never wait for others to assist him in this instance. In his last message, he talked about the freedom of Sindhi Nation, and told them to get up and struggle for your freedom.
Khair Bakhsh Marri did not believe only in theoretical struggle for freedom of Baloch nation, but he believed strongly in practical struggle. He was silent on every issue, but practically he was struggling for his purpose of life. Today’s Baloch National Movement is continued in its stable form, is all because of his struggle. After 1988, the Baloch Politics was ambiguous, some Baloch leader did politics with nation to destroy Baloch Nation Liberation Movement, and decided to be permanent part of Pakistani Parliament, he was Comrade Khair Bakhsh Marri who removed the confusion of Baloch Politics and gave it a clear vision and target of Liberation of Baloch Nation. It is the result of his strong ideology that he brought Balach Marri, his son, in Baloch Politics, and today all Baloch Youth has embraced his ideology and is going on and on.
Comrade Khair Bakhsh Marri sacrificed his entire life and family in the struggle of Baloch Liberation Movement, but had never considered it a big sacrifice. Once a journalist inquired him that what message do you like to convey the Baloch Nation, then in reply he said that I myself don’t know that what message should I convey to Baloch Nation, because I myself couldn’t do anything for nation.
(Courtesy to Sangerpubalication. com)
It is a fact that the main and biggest crisis today which is almost being faced by every country is corruption. I believe that no law, no check and balance, and poverty are the main causes of corruption.
No law: It is a fact that there is no law in most of the countries. Surely, in several countries, criminals are breaking the law, stealing the things and even killing the poor people in front of the police but are not being apprehend by the force since the citizens’ protecting institute itself is involved in these all types of dishonesties.
No check and balance: There is any check and balance almost in every country. And every people from every country have personal weapons with them and whatever they want to do they can since the police will not arrest them because they always give bribe to the police officers and that’s why they won’t be ask by anyone.
Poverty: It has been proven without doubting that more than half of the residents of every country are jobless and even they don’t have three times food for sustenance, so if this is the condition then of course, they will be compelled to do corruption.
Finally, it is request the ruling governments of countries are sincere to develop theirs state, then they must arrest the corrupt officers and ruling authorities must fulfill the demands of public.
Bahram Sayad, Turbat
A COULD GAS GIANT, Uranus is the third largest planet in the Solar System. Its most unusual characteristic is that its axis of rotation lies almost in the plane of its orbit, and so it seems to orbit the Sun on its side. Although it can be seen with the naked eye when at its brightest, Uranus was not discovered until 1781, when it was found by a British astronomer, William Herschel.
ATOMSPHERE AND CLIMATE
Uranus is covered in methane clouds that absorb red light, giving the planet a greenish appearance. Its disk is nearly featureless, but some bright clouds were seen by the Voyager 2 space Telescope. The planet’s extreme axial tilt means that in the course of each orbit the Sun appears overhead at the equator and both poles; each pole experiences 42 years of daylight followed by 42 years of darkness. The interior is probably significantly different from those of Jupiter and Saturn, consisting mostly of water, methane, ammonia, and rock, rather than liquid hydrogen.
RINGS AND MOONS
Uranus has 11 thin rings and 21 known moons (six only recently identified and whose orbits are not yet accurately known). The rings are too faint to be seen with the size of telescope used by amateur observers. The outermost ring, called the Epsilon ring, is 60 miles (100 km) wide and has “shepherd” moons, Cordelier and Ophelia, one on each side. The moons, too, faint; even the biggest and brightest, Tatiana, is one of 14th magnitude and hence cannot be seen without a large telescope.
Under good conditions, and when its position is known, Uranus can be located with the naked eye, resembling a star of 6th magnitude. It is easy to find with binoculars, even from urban areas. Its identity can be confirmed by watching its movements from night to night. At oppositions, which occur a year and four days apart, a magnification of 500 times will show Uranus about the same size as the full moon.
The subject has been taken from book of Taj Mohammad Breseeg “Baloch Nationalism, its origin and development”.
Continued from previous….
Describing Mir Dost Mohammad Khan’s military ability, in 1958 Mohammad Sardar Khan wrote, “He was able to muster up 10,000 fighting men equipped with martini Peabody rifles.” According to Sardar Khan Baloch, Bampur in his time was well guarded and well administrated as a free strong hold of the Baloch, it served as an asylum for all insurgents who absconded from Kalat state. Hossein Makki, a Persian historian, however, numbers Mir Dost Mohammad Khan’s regular army to 5000 men. The revenues from produce, which was 1/10, and the Khani-Arziat (crown land) were the main sources of income to treasury of the Hakomat. The custom posts of Chabahar, Gwatr and the other part of Balochistan constituted another imported source of the state treasury. On demand each tribe had an obligation to provide Lankbandi (troops). Of course, those tribes who provided Lankbandi were exempted for paying taxes.
Having defeated the revolutionary movements in Azerbaijan (1920), and Gilan (1921), in northern Iran, Reza Khan formulized his doctorial rule to become the Shah of Iran. Supported by the British, he overthrew Ahmad Shah, the last king of Qajar dynasty in 1925. On December 12, 1925, he proclaimed himself as Raza Shah Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran. Raza Khan was shrewd politician; any force that stood in his way was mercilessly attacked and, so for as possible, destroyed. With Ahmad Shah thus deposed and dictatorial powers handed to Raza Khan, he adopted a policy to crush sub-nationalism in Iran. In 1925, he annexed the British-protected Arab principality of Khuzistan or Arabistan, as it used to be called, which was ruled than by an Arab ruler, Shaikh Khazal. The Baloch Sardar, and especially Mir Dost Mohammad Khan, were informed that they would no longer be treated as independent rulers and that they were to surrender to Iran’s rule.
Consequently, a Perso- Baloch war, led by Mir Dost Mohammad Khan started. In early 1928, Iranian troops invaded Balochistan with artillery and aero planes. Various hotly contested battles were fought between the two sides for seven months. Describing the intensity of resistance, and the bravery of the Baloch forces in the battle with Iranian army in 1928, the commander of the Iranian armed forces, General Amanullah Jahanbani stated, “in my opinion the reason for such [Balochs’] historical legends,….” While acknowledging that none of the defenders surrendered, he said that they had to be eliminated one by one in order to secure the fort of Dezzak.
What feelings did stimulate such a sacrifice in the Baloch? The most likely explanation for this lies in the Baloch desire to preserve their independence and to resist political control by the none-Baloch. It may also be of some interest to note that to undermine the resistance morale of the Baloch, Iranian planes dropped leaflets over Bampur, Pahrah, and Dezzak, the major cities of western Balochistan, printed in Persian and English. These leaflets told the Baloch that the Iranian and English. These leaflets told the Baloch that the Iranian forces would soon liberate them from the tyranny of the sardars and that after their liberation the Baloch could decide their own destiny.
Being defeated in Dezzak and Bampur, Mir Dost Mohammad resorted to guerrilla tactics against the Iranians. In spite of numerical superiority and the sophistication of their armament, the Persian did not succeed in subjugating the Baloch. Seeing no other way, Raza Shah reverted to the traditional treachery of Persian Monarch and sent a word to Mir Dost Mohammad expressing the desire to reach a peaceful settlement with the Baloch. Raza Shah sent a delegate carrying the Muslim holy writ, the Koran, to Mir Dost Mohammad, along a letter in which the Shah gave a solemn committed that he wanted to negotiate with Mir Dost Mohammad in Tehran. He promised that Mir Dost Mohammad would remain ruler. The letter said Balochistan would be allied with Iran only in the conduct of external affairs. The Shah, the letter promised, was keen to have a settlement on the same lines arrived at between the British government and the Khan of Kalat.
Taking Raza Shah’s assurances for granted Mir Dost Mohammad not only stopped the hostilities, but also set out for Tehran along with some of his trusted colleagues. But soon after his arrival in Tehran he was arrested and put in jail. A region of terror was let loose, killing and maiming hundreds of people in Balochistan. To continue the freedom movement of his country, Mir Dost Mohammad managed his escape, but returning to Balochistan was arrested and executed in 1931 by the Iranian government. According to India office Records, before his defeat, Mir Dost Mohammad sent a delegation headed by Abdul Karim and Arz Mohammad Bozorgzadeh from Dezak, to British Balochistan’s capital Quetta, to meet the agent to the Governor General for help against the Persian, but with no success.
His first hope was king Amanullah of Afghanistan. It said that Amanullah wanted to help the Baloch, because of having common religious faith and common anti-Persian feeling. It may also be of some interest to note that a pro-Dost Mohammad Khan lobby in Kabul including Amanullah Khan himself were propagating that the Baranzais of Balochistan, were ethnically the same as the Barakzais of Afghanistan, a Pashtun tribe to which Amanullah and other members of the royal family belonged. Perhaps the reason then was to justify the Afghan claim over the Baloch country. But in 192, the king himself was struggling for his own survival and was not in a position to support Mir Dost Mohammad.
Criticizing to king Amanullah Khan’s foreign policy, Syed Mehdi Farrokh, a pro-Iranian writer, pointed out; Amanullah wanted to create some excitations in Iranian Balochistan. Meanwhile, the Persian army arrested one of Mir Dost Mohammad Khan’s messengers, leaving toward Afghanistan; According to Persian source he was carrying a letter from Dost Mohammad Khan to the ruler of Afghanistan. In this letter Iran was mentioned as a mentioned as the neighboring country, which has attacked Balochistan. He was requesting help from his Afghan brethren. Similarly, in 1928, the Khanate of Kalat was experiencing its worst political crises. Under the direct control of the British administration, the rule of the Khan of Kalat, Mir Mohammad Khan’s repeated requests to the Khan of Kalat for ‘come and help us’, according to the nationalist writer Sardar Khan Baluch, were answered “immediately and mercilessly” by a decided no.
On the Soviet Union side, Dost Mohammad Khan was not too optimistic; firstly, because of Reza Khan’s democratic and anti-British gestures, and secondly, because of geographical distance. In the same way he was not expecting any help from the British. The British having their own vested interest, had already sided with Persians, and, as mentioned earlier, they openly rejected his request for help. Without hope of outside help, Mir Dost Mohammad Khan resorted to a new tactic. He tried to attract the attention of the followers of the exiled Shah, Ahmad Shah Qajar. He stated that Ahmad Shah was legitimate King of Iran, and that he would support the Qajar King. On the 9th of June 1928, a report by the British consul at Kerman stated that “Ahmad Shah will shortly land in Balochistan and join Dost Mohammad “, and added, “Ahmad Shah has left Paris for Beirut”. There were also rumors that the Russians were following the events with curiosity. However, nothing is known about the reaction of Ahmad Shah Qajar.
In 1810, as mentioned earlier, Henry Pottinger noted a profound hatred between the Persians and the Baloch in his discussion with Mehrab Khan of Bampur , in Western Balochistan. Expressing such revived old hatreds, on 25th January 1927, about one century later, Sir J. Ramsay, the AGG in Balochistan wrote:
The tracts named are Persian in International law, because the boundary pillars that they are so; but there is not a vestige of Persian authority existing, nor has Persia any means of asserting her theoretical claims to sovereignty over an area in which Persian are aliens and in which they detest and are detest by people…….. not only has the country under discussion slipped out of Persian grasp; it has been so hostile to Persia that its inhabitants have taken Persian forts and lands and have laid waste districts further west which still own allegiance to Persia, while they have carried off number of Persian subjects into slavery.
Mir Dost Mohammad Khan’s rebellion in the late 1920s was prototype of post-World War nationalist movements. In Harrison’s view, it was a turning point in the history of the Baloch in that nationalism was prime factor. Dost Mohammad Khan based the legitimacy of his rule on ethnic criteria such as Sunni Islam and his tribe alliance. The town folks and Baloch Ulama (clergy) supported him. The fear of Shiism prompted the maulavis to issue a religious fatva, declaring the Persian armed forces “infidel” in order to mobilise popular support for Dost Mohammad Khan against Reza Shah in 1928. His weaknesses, however, were the usual ones: inter-tribal rivalry. The Rikis, the Naruis, the Kurds, and many other tribes made a separate peace with Tehran to guarantee their relative strength vis-à-vis the newly created urban power center of Baranzais. Even in Makkoran, the power base of Mir Dost Mohammad Khan, several tribes would fought the hardest against the Iranian, were willing to make a deal. Another reason for tibal reticence in Sarhadd to be involved in a rebellion was the chieftains’ reluctance to jeopardize the relationships they had cultivated after the British departure from the region and the transfer of the Sarhadd administration to Iranian in 1924. Bampur fell against the overwhelming power of the Iranian army, but it had been weaken the tribal desertion to the other side before the army took a single town.
With Mir Dost Mohammad Khan’s fall, the Iranians succeeded, for the most part, in pacifying the Baloch tribes, occasional revolts, however, continued in Iranian Balochistan throughout the reminder of Reza Shah’s region. Major examples were the revolt of Juma Khan Ismailzai and Jiand Khan Yar-Ahmadzai in Sarhadd in 1931. Being unable to stand against the superior Persian power, Jumma Khan with his forces took refuge to British Balochistan, but was soon extradited to Iran; there he was exiled for life to central Persia, Shiraz. The other rebellious chief, the ninety years old Jian Khan, was arrested and died in a jail in Mash-had northern Iran. The next rebellion was the rebellion of a number of tribes led by Mehrab Khan Nausherwani in Kuhak in 1938, demanding reduction of customs duty on livestock, in which more than 200 Baloch were executed under orders from Persian General Alborz.
To be continued……
By Ahmed Khan
Sabeen Mahmud a 40 years lady, on 24th April, 2015, was shot-dead right after a seminar “Un-silencing Balochistan”. After conclusion of seminar, she was on the way to home in Karachi Defense area which is a posh cluster of the city that her vehicle stopped on a square due to red-signal, meantime the motor cyclists were lurking opened fire and targeted Ms Mahmud on her upper torso. The bullets hit on her head, neck, chest and other parts of body which had pierced into the body. She was injured critically and before being shifted to hospital succumbed to bullet wounds.
Sabeen Mahmud’s mother also received bullets but she survived. The driver was sitting in same vehicle on back seat at time of spree, remained unhurt in the incident.
Sabeen Mahmud was a pacifist with progressive mind-set. She love humanism and was a crusade to overcome on injustices exist in society, in civilized way by logic and reason. For pragmatic steps to implement here’s thoughts on ground she established a café is called “The Second Floor (T2F)”. It was a library and forum where untouched or rejected matters would be discussed by intellectuals and sane people who persuade or get convinced through rational information or dialectics.
Sabeen Mahmud broached various topics on her developed forum T2F, on the eve of “Valentine Day” she tweeted “Let lovers get closed” (Faslae na rakhein, piyar honay dain) which goaded the religions elements that already were campaigning against this festival.
Apart from mentioned topics, Sabeen Mahmud was a staunch human rights defender and in this state the citizen’s rights are not given but country is run in plutocratic style by mixture of religion. The ruling class and establishment merely taking benefit has coerced the majority but for the justification of their stand-off they get verdicts from clergymen.
The civilized world is to be observed about advancement in life and civilization, so only the glasnost (openness) is the thing which led them to trouble free, even tolerance about religion or interfaith. Sabeen Mahmud also was striving to pave a way for such a society where people would respect the faith of each other and her forum T2F was cornerstone about this.
In Balochistan, the injustices by state officials roused rebellious sentiments. Instead of redress the Balochistan’s people; the haughty rulers are suppressing voice of victims in this province. The maltreated Baloch by establishment formed an organization to voice-up against atrocities on them. These Baloch were headed by Sabeen Mahmud and she as her nature arranged a seminar to spot-light on this bereft issue. But she did not know that some matters are totally illicit even to be visualized in mind about those you have talked.
Sabeen Mahmud worked on various fields and challenging issues. Her mechanism for putting things on right position was very decent, rational, logical and pacifist. Hence, motives behind the murder of Sabeen Mahmud have conveyed a message to critiques in Pakistan that they zip theirs lips, blind fold the eyes and lock on the brains.
The minds do not imagine any dissent; otherwise, their fate will be similar to Sabeen Mahmud. The assailants of Ms Mahmud are so strong and unanswerable to anyone because they have perpetrated in such situation and condition that a common person probably cannot do it. In defense area of Karachi is fully protected by government’s security official through all means of modern invention and it is supervised by high rank officers. That is why Sabeen’s murderers may not be caught but can silent to dissent perseveres.
Malala Yousafzai condemned the tragic killing of human rights activist by say her hurts goes-out to Sabeen’s family and friends. She stated further the authorities should arrest the perpetrators of this crime and to protect human rights and peaceful activists.
The Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC) stated in its urgent appeal program that the federal government must appoint judges from Sind High Court (SHC) to hold inquiry in to the murder of human rights defender and bring the culprits before the court of law whatever is their position. It is high time that the security forces who are running their own parallel system against the rule of law.
Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (HRCP) stated in its press release that they strongly condemned the assassination of renewed activist and human rights defender Sabeen Mahmud. The commission demanded that Sabeen’s killers must be held to account and immediate steps must be taken to address the escalating threats and violence against rights defender across Pakistan.
Further the HRCP stated the authorities must acknowledge the growing protection challenges for human rights defenders and must adopt measures to ensure their safety and to end impunity for the perpetrators who have been systematically silencing the bravest daughters and sons.
The observatory for the protection of human rights defenders (FIDH) in a joint program and the World Organization Against Torture (OMCT) in a joint program expressed dismay of the assassination of Ms. Sabeen Mahmud and called upon the authorities to investigate and bring the perpetrators of this hatful crime to justice.
Further the organization stated the Pakistani authorities must promptly investigate the circumstances leading to Ms Sabeen in order to end this long-lasting climate of impunity, by bringing the perpetrators of this hateful crime to justice. Added OMCT Secretary General Staberock.
By Shehzad Baloch
The Soviet Union in sought of warm water’s avail had stricken in Afghanistan and got disintegrated. By now, another power China in the pursuance of being superpower is on footprint of Soviet and has fixed its eyes on same locale the Gwadar.
The Soviet Union past superpower and present emerging colonial power the China has some differences in policies. The China is on the path of expansionism, making colonies in innovative way. The Soviet Union used its army and resources to subjugate the small nationalities. But China first snatches resources of under developed nations by the assistance of controlled government or it pays-off the bourgeois rulers from robbed wealth from small occupied nationalities.
In Balochistan, the China first looted resources by succor of Pakistani establishment in shape of Saindak gold project and other minerals. By now, it is stepping in Balochistan pragmatically and paying a small amount which first gained from also Balochistan. And this red-imperialist is also evading bring its army directly to Balochistan but using Pakistan’s forces under its command. The China is much shrewd rather than the Soviet Union that directly used its resources and army.
China is relinquishing socialistic economy and is based on open market or capitalism. For catering its huge population it supplies low-cost production in world market. This country for excess to markets need routes and bases for shipment, transship and further process. Raw material is required to China for steering the wheel of it industry and consumption. For all these purposes it has picked the region of Balochistan and its coast the Gwadar.
The Gwadar, once a part of Oman before it is gained by Pakistan in 1958, without consent of genuine heir the Baloch. This is least developed district in Balochistan. It sits strategically near the Persian Gulf and close to the Strait of Hormuz, through which 40% of world’s oil passes.
The construction and operation of this multi-billion dollar deep sea port at Gwadar was constructed to a Chinese company in 2013, and some analysts argue that the port could turn into China’s naval base in the Baloch occasion, enabling Beijing to monitor Indian and American naval activities. In Arab occasion American Aircraft ships are patrolling but China also wants control on strategic points like Gwadar.
The China has planned to build more giant ports as modal of Guangdong in Africa and Asia.
China already made long-term agreements with Russia and Central Asian States Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan about oil and gas. So now, China is enhancing diplomatic ties with Arab states regarding oil and gas security. The Gwadar port cut its long distance and from this point, the Chinese bordering towns are merely 2500 kilometer.
The Chinese president Xi Jingping arrived in Islamabad on April 20, 2015, for one day visit. Where president signed on bilateral agreements mostly energy sector but the main project was Gwadar deep sea port and linking with this port of Chinese bordering cities which is named economic corridor. Chinese officials described the corridor as the “flagship project” of a border policy “One Belt, One Road” which seeks to physically connect the China to its markets in Asia, Europe and beyond.
The Indian security analyst and think-tanks are viewing Chinese existence in Balochistan expansionism and advancement in military aspect. The Indian analyst foretold that Gwadar will be naval of China in future. The European countries particularly America also doesn’t seem to tolerate the Chinese presence in Balochistan.
In Balochistan, a separatist war is being fought. This resource rich province’s masses are the poorest in entire country. The China already is busy in plundering resources of Baloch by help of Pakistan’s establishment. The Pakistani rulers and establishment’s parts confessed injustices with Baloch but meantime they are continuing extraction of resources by help of China without will of Baloch but they in foisted way are implementing designs on ground.
The discussed dissents in Balochistan caused mutiny in province. The Baloch commenced guerilla warfare after failure in political manner in the gain of rights within state of Pakistan. The Baloch separatists are resisting for more than twelve years and state forces by power could not root-out insurgency in the province of Balochistan. The separatist movement after its struggle of decade also got recognized internationally and generated sources for its long term sustain.
The Pakistan’s political system totally got failed and corruption with individual interests crippled the state; resultantly, it survives only on aid or in return of selling of its assets or fighting proxy war for someone. Now it has sold-out the Gwadar port to China after giving mineral of province to that.
The China has oxygenated Pakistani establishment to eliminate the obstacles in Balochistan. The Baloch insurgents carried-out several time attacks on Chinese companies in the region. The China antagonistic countries may support these Baloch insurgent for subversive activities. On the other hand, establishment also got about $46 from China and adamant to curb resistance and snatch all from Balochistan’s people and onward keep up its arrogance. The top brass is menacing the insurgents for ultimate consequence for being hampered in interests. The nationalists are also blaming in their statements on state apparatuses for genocide of Baloch nation.
The prevailing situations in Balochistan are inkling to a dreadful scenario in future. Conditions will demarcate the fate of Baloch nation whether it will be able to uphold it identification with historical heritage of thousand years, preserve its resources for nation, but in case of defeat it will lose all like Saindak, Sui and other projects which didn’t benefit a tinge to Baloch.
The China is a sham socialist state that does not consider small nations’ interests but trampling all human values to grab Baloch resources. This attitude by China is totally negation of socialism but shows it a red-imperialist.
By Nadia Baloch
The prominent Baloch human rights defender Mama Abdul Qadeer Baloch got the attention of national and international human rights organizations as well as media, when he along with his fellow marchers had marched from Quetta to Karachi and then Karachi to Islamabad and by this he broke the world record of Gandhi who traveled 700 km. The purpose of this march was to get the attention of the International human rights organization and developed societies about the violation of human rights in Balochistan in shape of abduction of Baloch political activist, human rights defenders and people from all walks of life and their extra judicial killing.
Mama Qadeer has been struggling on the platform of the Voice for Baloch Missing Persons (VBMP) for the safe recovery of missing persons. He is the Vice Chairman of the VBMP, his son Jaleel Reki was abducted on 13 February, 2009, after two and half years his bullet riddled body was found from Turabt. After the extra judicial killing of Mr Reki, the human right defender Mama Qadeer has devoted his life for the early release of missing persons. He along with the members of organization have been recording their protest, organizing seminars to raise voice against the violation of human rights in Balochistan. Since the formation of the organization, Mama Qadeer has never taken rest, with every passing day he is seen in protest camp in front of Quetta, Karachi and Islamabad press clubs or participating seminars conducted against the enforced disappearances. Pictures of the missing and extra judicial killed persons were displayed in the camp established by Mama Qadeer to protest tirelessly.
Few days back, on 9th April, a program on human rights was scheduled at Lahore University of Management Science (LUMS). The title of the talk was “Un-silencing Balochistan”. The panelists of the talk were follows: Mama Abdul Qadeer Baloch the Vice Chairman of the Voice for Baloch Missing Persons, Farzana Majeed the Secretary General of the VBMP, Mohammad Ali Talpur a columnist, I.A Rehman the Director of Human Rights Commission of Pakistan, Asim Sajjad the Assistant Professor at Quaid-e- Azam University and human rights activist, Sajjad Chaghezi human rights activist, Alif Ailaan, and the program was moderated by Rashid Rehman the chief editor of renowned newspaper Daily Times.
According to media reports, the talk was cancelled by interdict of the state authorities.
Dr. Taimur Rehman a faculty member of LUMS talking to Pakistan Today said that men from Inter-Services-Intelligence (ISI) visited LUMS, and presented a letter calling for cancellation of talks.
They further said that Balochistan is a sensitive issue and the moot could be used to malign Pakistan, said Dr. Rehman, adding that the intelligence officials were firm in their directives.
The talks were aimed at understanding the Balochistan issue and discussing ways on how to resolve the longstanding problems of Baloch people. It was supposed to be an academic discussion which was muzzled for no good reason. This is violation of academic freedom and curb on freedom of speech. The Baloch also have right to express their reservations, which could help us in reaching a logical solution, the issue facing the province. Dr. Rehman said.
The students of LUMS have recorded their protested on social media and urged the government that such talks should be held, the cancellation of human rights talk is the violation of freedom of expression. Students stated on social media.
It is not the first time the state’s authorities have claimed that the VBMP office bearers are involved in anti-state activities. We were disallowed to travel abroad by state authorities to attend a seminar on human rights in USA. Mama Qadeer said.
“The reason of the cancelation of talk was to not let the students to know about the issue of missing person and the extra judicial killing of political activists. The members of the organization have knocked every door of the state institute including the Supreme Court of Pakistan and still the cases are in pending at court. The first information reports of missing persons are filed in the police stations of the state. If they were involved in anti-state activities, they would not appear before the judiciary.” Said by the families of missing persons.
Due to absence of media coverage the rest of the people of Pakistan are unaware of the situations in Balochistan. According to the VBMP and other political organizations, in Balochistan the number of missing persons is in thousand, and more than one thousand people were extra judicially killed.
The peoples in provinces of Pakistan do not know why political activist, students and people from grass root level of this province Balochistan are being abducted and extra judicially killed. They even don’t known; the motives behind formation of organization the Voice for Baloch Missing Persons. Why the members of the organization marched the longest distance of 2700 km? Why they are sitting on token hunger strike camp?
They must be informed that they their loved ones were brutally taken away from them, they have consulted the judiciary and were ignored by the supreme institutes of the state, and then they adopted the way of peaceful protest for the safe recovery of their loved ones.
Majority of the people of Pakistan doesn’t know about the issue of Balochistan. A report telecasted on BBC, people of the Punjab were asked about the areas and people of Balochistan so they didn’t know anything about this province. They even don’t know it was the state of Balochistan.
Workshops should be held in the educational institutions of Punjab and other provinces of Pakistan regarding the issue of Balochistan. It was the first program which was scheduled on human rights about Balochistan at the educational institution of Lahore; Mama Qadeer and Farzana Majeed were among the speaker panelist, and later the talk was cancelled by the interference of the state authorities to stop the freedom of expression and it is violation of the article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)
1: Every one shall have the right to hold opinion without interference.
2: Every one shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of his choice.
Front Line Defenders stated that it’s a grave concern at the silencing of the discussion session at LUMS and continuing smear campaign against human rights defenders working on the behalf of the Baloch people, as well as the refusal of the Pakistani authorities to lift the travel ban placed upon Mama Qadeer as a result of his human rights work.
The Asian Human Rights Commission condemned the cancellation of the talk and stated that intervention in the academic debate on the issue of Balochistan and demands that the state conduct an enquiry into the matter. Any intellectual debate cannot be silenced forcefully. The society and its people have a right to have free thoughts and access to information as enshrined in the constitution of Pakistan.
In the constitution of Pakistan every citizen shall have the right to freedom of speech and expression, subject to any reasonable restriction imposed by law in the interest of the glory of Islam or the integrity, security of defense of Pakistan or any part thereof friendly relations with foreign states, public order, decency or morality, or in relation or contempt of court, [commission of] or incitement to an offence.
But here in Balochistan entirely different situation, the constitutional and fundamental rights are not followed by the state authorities.
By Ahmad Khan
The Saudi Arabia is a state was created to deal the Muslim World by imperialist. It was used as controlling on Muslim World but now circumstances evolved in shape that this state is representing only Sunni Sect. It is bizarre that the Saudi has amicable interaction with Non-Muslim States but has antagonism with Shias a sect within Muslim faith. In fact, the sectarian belief is being used to extract benefits and distract detriments.
Currently two types of states exist in world; social inclined and corporate or bourgeois ruled states.
In Europe, some states are welfare or social and also democratic which secure interests of its citizens are cherished by them with patriotic sentiments. For instance, Sweden, Denmark, Newze-land, Canada, Holland and so on. These mentioned state’s governments are like administrative committees and borders are totally slackened and defense budget of said states is very small in size, but these exploit all its income for citizens’ welfare and better life standard.
The second types of states are controlled by bourgeois who persecute its people in despotic way. The Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Afghanistan India and likewise are the best model of corporate state. Where citizens are enslaved and denied all human rights in 21st century.
A layer or bourgeois class is all in all within country and masses are helpless or they kept engaged in gain of sustenance or they are got loggerhead in sectarian affairs.
Similarly, the Saudi royal family has expanded its influence on other countries out of the Saudi Arabia. The Yemen is one among those discussed countries. The Saudi royals created a comprador or controlled regime in shape of Mansoor Hadi governorate in Yemen and through that it was plundering all resources and labor of Yemenis by the use of sectarian slogan.
The long grubby series of injustices with Yemenis give birth to rebellious sentiments. In this country, both sects wagging war against compradors. The Sunnis joined platform of Al-Qaeda and second largest population is Zaidi comprises on Houthi tribes who formed armed militia after long term exploitation at the hands of Saudis an imperialist supported monarchism run country.
In Yemen, the Houti insurgency began in June, 2004. Hussan Badreddin al –Houthi is belonging to Zaidi sect was heading insurgency after dissident with Saadah government. The insurgency got animated in Northwestern Yemen and spread in other parts of country including in Saudi Province of Jizan.
In South of Yemen is bastion of Al-Qaeda Sunni belief a militant organization has rife globally. This organization is also unaccepted by Saudi monarchists and their supporter the United States of America.
In August, 2009, the Yemeni Army launched an operation but motivated and persecuted people by rulers of country and Saudis were invincible. The Houthi’s fight got focused by world when they skirmished with Saudi forces along with border in 2009.
On 20 January, 2015, the Houthi fighters overthrew the Mansoor Hadi regime by capturing the presidential place. The so-called president run-away to Saudi Arabia for sanctuary. Saudi Arabia is the country where mostly abscond totalitarians take refuge, for instance, Mansoor Hadi ousted president of Yemen, Zain-ul-Abidin the banished president of Tunisia, Nawaz Sharif also went Saudi when he was ousted by Musharraf, and other many rulers after massive corruption run to this country where they ever received with protocol and onward lead luxurious life by looted wealth from their country’s citizens.
Presently, the Houthi fighters have occupied the most of areas in Yemen. But they don’t have any political program to implement in country for smooth running it. They through their statements expressed that in Yemen will not be theologist government of Zaidi because in country the Shafi doctrine is bigger. The Houthis are intended to establish a parliament where all sects have equal rights, and Hadi government and predecessor regimes ever marginalized them.
The Saudi Arabia extracts all agriculture products and resources of Yemen by a controlled government in shape of Mansoor Hadi and predecessors who kept pauper the Houthis and now they have toppled this regime. But, the Saudi Bourgeois is worried that this country may go out of their control. The Saudi Arabia is an arid area but gets agrigarian products from Yemen. This country was under the control of Saudi by a comprador that is why it is fighting by formed alliance conisting of some Arab States. In their joint statement Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirate, Bahrain, Qatar and Kuwait said they decided to repel Houthi militias, Al-Qaeda and ISIS in the country.
In ongoing war in Yemen; the UAE contributed 30 fighter jets, Bahrain 15, Kuwait 15, Qatar 10 and Jordan 6 in current operation. The mentioned countries formed a joint Arab force and declared Houthi coup a threat to Gulf States.
Here it is some interesting that they consider Houthis Shia and inclined toward Iran a Shai theologies state, but ISIS and Al-Qaeda are not Shia and these are bigot Sunni organizations, but are not accepted by Saudi and Sunni Arab States above mentioned. This policy implies, the war in Yemen is not a religious or sectarian but bargoeise defending strife.
Currently, the United States has reconciled on nuclear controversies with Iran; hence evade to step-in the war of Yemen in favor of its old ally the Saudi Arabia.
The Saudi Arabia is expecting from those countries where it has established comprador or religious supporters or empowered theirs armies. The Pakistan is epitomized, about this BBC through a report informed that Saudi ever funded this country. Further the western media informed that the Saudi Arabia added 60 % share in construction of Pakistan’s Atomic bomb. And after nuclear tests on 28th May, 1998, in Balochistan province, the international world imposed sanctions on Pakistan, and then the Saudi Arabia had been giving 50000 barrels per day to it for sustaining.
The Pakistani army and government bought war machinery, war-plane and other equipment by given funds the Arab states, especially the Saudi Arabia. Today, those countries want Pakistan should come forth and support war in Yemen to the Saudi Arabia whether it is righteous or wrong. The Bourgeoisies bring up comprador to use them in their favor, and present states are not for citizens’ welfare but established to protect the burghers’ interests.
The Pakistan aristocrats have business and properties in Saudi, UAE and other Arab States, so for protection of their assets they also are inclined to involve in Yemen war but common masses are dissuaded.
The Houthis should adopt a socialistic ideology and win masses hearts and minds. Further, they should deliver justice to masses, and get all Yemenis regardless creed and sect, and then no one can defeat them. Because the Houthis if get dependent on Iran then they will again be slave like they were of Saudi and Yemen will be out of fry pan but into the fire. And they will build another bourgeois controlled state by Iran instead of Saudi Arabia. Certainly, in such condition mutiny will be up. They must remember only social based system can pull-out country from chaos.
Karl Marx viewed the state as a creature of the bourgeois economic interest. The executive of the modern state is nothing but a committee for managing the common affairs of the whole bourgeoisie. The quotation of Marx is approved in Yemen by the Saudi, Pakistan and Arab States that’s citizens cost off this purposeless war.
Bolan Voice Report
The China’s president arrival in Pakistan and signing on the agreements pertaining to the investment on Baloch land invigorates the Chinese expansionism in this region. The investment by China in Balochistan is for the military interests not for economic development. Said the BSO Azad spokesperson in a statement.
The China is desired to get the control on the Baloch land and resources through Pakistan and overcome on rival states and materialize its expansionist policies on ground. The Chinese arrival in Balochistan is a great threat to the Baloch national interests, years old history and existence.
The China is extending its legs till Central Asian States and Africa which will ignite a war in region and foreboded further it will catch in flame to entire world. The China is going to wage a war on Baloch land, a distanced place intentionally to get unharmed its country.
With the announcement of Gwadar to Kashgar economic corridor construction, the security forces have intensified its ongoing operation and genocide of Baloch nation in Balochistan by Chines succor. The security forces are displacing the Baloch mass from their villages and towns. The future ominous atrocities on the Baloch masses can be assessed by incept of construction of corridor which impacted on Baloch drasticaly.
The China is assisting the Pakistani security forces on large scale with aim to give protection its investment in Balochistan. The China is also determent to diploy its aircraft carrier ship in Baloch occasion in nearer future. It is outspoken that China’s investment in this region is not for the economic development but to obtain its military interests.
The spokesperson further stated, the Baloch nation is striving to uphold its identity and do not allow such investments in warlike situations. The aim of Chinese military investment is to make colonies in world including Balochistan.
Furthermore, government is trying for the demographic changes in the coastal areas and maligned to displace the Baloch masses from their land.
The agreements about Gwadar port without the consent of Blaoch nation cannot be materialized, because nation do not allow the Chinese or other international companies to invest on Baloch land in present settings.
The international organizations and developed countries should come forth to prevent the Baloch land turning into war arena, and then Baloch nation will be able to contribute in maintaining the peace in world. The civilized world assistance can enable Baloch to play a constructive role in international peace and development.
By Mansoor Baloch
Nuclear test conducted to confirm the power and explosive potential of nuclear weapons. The main purpose of conducting nuclear test to get information how it works and it often used to mark of scientific and military power. Conducting nuclear tests to declare their state as a nuclear power country.
The first nuclear weapon test was conducted by the United States America (USA) on 16 July, 1945. The USA has conducted 1030 tests, among them 815 tests were underground, 210 were in the atmosphere and 5 were under water.
Pakistan conducted its first nuclear test on 28th May, 1998. The tests were conducted in Chaghi district of Balochistan province at the hills of RasKoh. After the nuclear tests’ Pakistan was declared the first Muslim nuclear power state.
Chaghi is known the largest districts of Pakistan covering 50,545 km land area of the country. It is located in the North West corner of Balochistan, Pakistan, and bordering with Afghanistan and Iran.
As the compensation of nuclear test the suppressed people of Balochistan are suffering from the operations which are conducted on daily basis in every district, number of people are displaced from their home towns and many of them are forcibly abducted, their bodies marks of severely tortured dumped in various areas of the province, the discovery of mass graves deepen the concerns of missing persons family members.
Moreover, the Balochistan province made the Pakistan a nuclear state. After the nuclear tests hollow promises and claims were made by the provincial and federal governments for the development of the province. But the situation is getting worsen with each passing day. People are suffering from poverty, in the existence of RecoDick, Saindak and Gwadar deep sea port etc.
The health care centers are showing the worst form in the province Balochistan and a large number of people are suffering various diseases after the nuclear test radiation, such as skin diseases, redness of skin, heart diseases, blood problem and diarrhea etc.
The agriculture system is going to be down each passing day because the ecological effects of the test are numerous. As geologists believe that the tests have not only causes a decline in ground water but also have polluted both surface and ground waters. Therefore, the polluted water is not suitable four human beings drinking or even farming. Global climate change resulting in water shortage has already affected the entire region.
The nuclear test explosion resulted diseases and deaths of numerous cattle’s affected by the radiation. The livestock and agriculture are the main source of livelihood of the people Balochistan province. The tests have terribly affected the social, economic and livestock of the people. No measures are taken by the both provincial and federal concerned department to facilitate the affected people of the area.
As research studies have been produced that these claims many inborn in children in Chaghi and other adjoining areas of the province including abnormality of limbs or their loss in the later segment of the age.
What actually Balochistan needs the social, economic, educational, health, sanitation, equality and agricultural development. But unfortunately every regime of the governments, the people of Balochistan are being apologized by the ruling government for the injustices, violation of human rights and the wrong policies of the governments. After months or years the ruling government will act extensively on the same policies.
“Those who would give up essential liberty, to purchase a little temporary safety, deserve neither liberty nor safety” — this clichéd quote is ascribed to Benjamin Franklin; it presupposes a trade-off but for the inhabitants of Karachi, there is no choice to be made; there is neither liberty, nor security.
The murder of Sabeen Mahmud amply demonstrates this but examples are, unfortunately, not rare. In 2013, Parveen Rehman, an activist who spent 28-years campaigning for land and basic service rights for the poor in Karachi, was murdered in similar circumstances. There will undoubtedly be countless others we may not have heard of but who have suffered a similar fate.
I had only met Sabeen once (when my wife was speaking at the T2F) and had spoken to her once again when I was intending to speak on how Muslim countries can build constitutional democracies while paying fidelity to religious values.
I recall being impressed at the time that someone had put in so much effort to create a forum, a space (perhaps the only one) where historians, lecturers and scientists shared knowledge on subjects as diverse as dark matter, human rights and the arts — a rare luxury in Muslim majority countries where, to put into some context the poor state of knowledge creation, in 2005 “Harvard University produced more scientific papers than 17 Arabic-speaking countries combined and where the world’s 1.6 billion Muslims have produced only two Nobel laureates in chemistry and physics.” The T2F, it appeared, sought to fill this chronic gap.
And that is precisely what makes her death all the more troubling; it signals that the personal cost for producing knowledge that challenges the status quo can be very high; several years have gone by and Karachi still remains firmly in the grip of the same vested interests, which remind us time and again that there can be no meaningful dissent.
To be sure, one does not need to have liked what Sabeen did or agree with what she said. Nevertheless, unless every person — including those who oppose reason or dissent — is assured security of life, there is every incentive for people to not step up and fix the problems that need to be fixed in this country.
The social harm of silencing Sabeen then, and other people who stepped up to this job, will be severe and incalculable; the precedent remains unmistakable.
The real tragedy here is not just that an innocent individual life was taken (which is unforgivable in itself); nor is this a question about free speech or free expression. Rather, the issue is one of social progress and justice.
No matter what your beliefs are and where they originate from, prosperity requires the production of knowledge; knowledge, however, cannot be produced in an environment when dissenting voices are punished.
Thus, the consequence of this murder can only result in more of what has happened for decades: the brain-drain will continue as educated, well-intentioned persons who can bring social change in the country seek any opportunity to escape, if they have not already done so, not for lack of opportunity but because those opportunities are meaningless without security.
This sets up a vicious cycle where those who can make a difference leave and those who the country needs to get rid of — those who have their hands on the trigger — the vested interests — thrive.
The end result is an irreplaceable void for those who wither away at the receiving end of suffering at the margins of social order.
And this is precisely where the state has failed most dismally.
It is clear that not only has the state not been able to positively deliver basic public goods since its inception; it has miserably even failed to deliver the less costly good of providing basic security so as to create a stable environment where social entrepreneurs — such as Parveen (land rights) and Sabeen (knowledge) could have stepped into the state’s shoes to do its job.
Democracy is not simply a state of existence; it is a process.
And, to take a wholly pessimistic view, the failure of the state will probably continue beyond the grave as it most likely fails to convincingly apprehend, investigate and punish the perpetrators.
The darkly comedic script used on previous occasions will (and I hope I am mistaken) likely play out again. That is, to show that it is responsive, the state may arrest some individuals and put them on show trials in what pass off as “courts” or kill others claiming they were perpetrators or it may seek to establish some commission of inquiry that is either powerless or drags its heels whilst people’s memories and feelings regarding the incident fade.
As a separate matter, considering some of the speculation about the motives surrounding her murder, can the state even be trusted to mete out justice?
Unfortunately, beggars cannot be choosers.
It is perhaps not too cliché to remark then that, for those who aspire to do good in this country, there is little justice before or after death.
We do not know who murdered Sabeen but we do know the only constant in this land is that there is no liberty, nor security.
(Courtesy to Dawn)
Bolan Voice Report
Comrade Fida Baloch, Hafeez Qambrani, Shah Zaman Kurd, Naseebullah Baloch, Babo Bugti and Moran Bugti were vigorous political workers in struggle of independence, who sacrificed their lives for Baloch cause, but theirs notions are alive and leading today nation’s patriots. The Baloch political worker Comrade Fida was martyred on 1st May in 80s decade. The Baloch Salvation Front consisting of Baloch Watan Movement, Balochistan Independence Movement and Baloch Gohar Movement pays great homage to Fida Baloch and other martyrs.
Through media statement the spokesperson of Front said that from the martyrdom day of Fida Baloch till to date thousands of Baloch sons and daughters were extra judicially killed intentionally to suspend Baloch struggle. But the Baloch descendants are sacrificing their lives for the Baloch cause and movement, constantly.
Fida Baloch was assassinated in a systematic way that no one come forth and led the Baloch nation, but so-called parliamentarian are given safe way to parliament. This conspiracy was hatched by establishment with collusion of here’s so-called parliamentarian nationalists intentionally to get engage the Baloch masses in state assemblies’ seats and divert or totally exterminate the ideology of independence or a Baloch national state with a fair and equality base system.
The assassination of Comrade Fida is an immense deficit of Baloch, and his nonexistence also left a vacuum in Baloch politics but his thoughts and ideology are leading even today the Baloch political workers.
Further the spokesperson said that those who are following the ideology of Fida Baloch are the real successor to him and presently are struggling for the Baloch cause. And those never can be the disciple or comrade of Fida who had connived in martyrdom and subsequently became part of state’s parliaments.
Between comrade Fida’s ideology and present parliamentarians’ thoughts have great contrast and these so-called nationalists do not have right to use his name and conduct sham programs in his remembrance.
The Baloch martyrs are genuine heir of Comrade Fida’s philosophy, who have embraced martyrdom but did not nudge from national question and truth. Comrade Fida and Baloch martyrs are valuable assets of Baloch nation. Stated in statement sent to media houses by Baloch Salvation Front.
Bolan Voice Report
Baloch Student Organization Azad (BSO Azad) has expressed grave concerns over the killing of the missing zonal activist of the organization Sangat Rasool Jan and others decomposed bodies were dump during the operation in Kech. The operation is intensified and widened in range throughout Balochistan and innocent civilians are being injured and killed. Informed BSO-A officials the media by a press conference held at Karachi press club.
They stated that even people do not feel themselves safe at their homes. Passengers during the travel on roads are feared they may not be abducted and disappeared from the security check posts established on highways and in towns. That is why everyone in Balochistan is in sense of insecurity.
The media is responsible professionally and ethically to show real picture and also represent the political and social changes in any region, but in Balochistan the situation is contradicted, because with every passing day innocent Balochs are targeted to kill, abducted and thousands of families are forcibly displaced from their native areas, and atrocities on Baloch has been blacked-out by mentioned media. BSO Azad officials blamed.
Further stated in BSO Azad statement that numerous incidents took place in Balcohistan and the reliable example of it is last days conducted operation in Turbat where missing persons’ bullet riddled bodies were thrown into fake encounter. Apart from the body of Hayat Baywas other bodies were identified of the missing persons, who were abducted from different areas of Balochistan some days before this incident. Months ago missing persons were killed in a fake encounter in Noshkey, their bodies were dumped and the Voice for Baloch Missing Persons an organization also verified early arrest of killed Balochs. The mainstream media is silent about such incidents.
Din Mohammad Bugti was abducted from Dasht, Master Asghar Dad was picked up on December, 2013, and Rasool Jan Baloch was abducted along with more than a dozen of students on January 7, 2014, from Atta Shad College Hostel at Turbat. He was the General Secretary of BSO Azad Turbat zone and a student of BA in Atta Shad College, he simultaneously was a teacher at DELTA English Language Center. They were abducted in the presence of many people. Hayat Baloch was handicap and was on wheel chair for many years, he was killed at his home during the operation. BSO Azad workers expressed in lamented way during the press conference.
Rasool Jan Baloch was struggling peacefully through the platform of BSO Azad. He was not only a student but also a teacher at DELTA Center a private English language center. Many such models are present in Balochistan that activists were abducted on the bases of political affiliation, and later on they were killed. But the civil society and media are completely silent about this issue.
The BSO Azad is concerned about the life of Chairman Zahid Baloch, Zakir Majeed Baloch, the abducted members and leaders including all the missing persons. The United Nation, international human rights organizations and media should play their due role to stop the extra judicial killing of the Baloch activists. Due to silence of these institutes, thousands of missing persons’ lives is at risk.
By Anwar Iqbal
The United States has handed over 14 combat aircraft, 59 military trainer jets and 374 armoured personnel carriers to Pakistan from the weapons it is leaving behind in the region, reports the Congressional Research Service.
The agency, which prepares internal reports for the US Congress, reported that the weapons supplied to Pakistan were earlier used by American forces in Afghanistan and Iraq.
The United States is withdrawing its forces from Afghanistan and has offered some of the weapons it is leaving behind to its allies in the region, including Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Technically, these weapons are classified as “Excessive Defense Articles”, i.e. equipment used by the US forces, which can be supplied to allied nations at withdrawal instead of shipping them back to the United States.
The weapons include F-16 armaments including 500 AMRAAM air-to-air missiles; 1,450 2,000-pound bombs; 500 JDAM Tail Kits for gravity bombs; and 1,600 Enhanced Paveway laser-guided kits. All this has cost Pakistan $629 million.
Pakistan has also paid $298 million for 100 harpoon anti-ship missiles, 500 sidewinder air-to-air missiles ($95 million); and seven Phalanx Close-In Weapons System naval guns ($80 million).
Under Coalition Support Funds (in the Pentagon budget), Pakistan received 26 Bell 412EP utility helicopters, along with related parts and maintenance, valued at $235 million.
Pakistan is also receiving military equipment with a mix of its national funds and America’s foreign military funding.
These include 60 Mid-Life Update kits for F-16A/B combat aircraft (valued at $891 million, with $477 million of this in FMF).
Pakistan has purchased 45 such kits, with all upgrades completed to date. This include 115 M-109 self-propelled howitzers ($87 million, with$53 million in FMF).
(Courtesy to Dawn)